Analysis of S. Epidermidis icaA and icaD genes by polymerase chain reaction and slime production: a case control study.
This article is from BMC Infectious Diseases , volume 13 . Abstract Background: Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common pathogen in medical device-associated infections and have an ability to form adherent slime. We aimed to study the effects of icaA and icaD genes on the slime formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis associated with catheter-associated infections. Methods: S. epidermidis isolates from the central venous catheter blood of patients with catheter-associated infections, and from the nasal vestibules of healthy volunteers, intensive care unit hospital staff, and patients, were collected. Slime phenotype was determined by Congo red agar test. The icaA/D was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Slime was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Results: A total of 82 S. epidermidis isolates were collected. We found a statistically significant difference with regards to slime production between the clinical isolates from the catheter blood specimens and those from the nasal vestibules (p
Published on 10/24/2014
Document details: 28 downloads.
Identification of appropriate reference genes for qPCR studies in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and preliminary assessment of icaA gene expression in biofilm-embedded bacteria.
This article is from BMC Research Notes , volume 7 . Abstract Background: Quantitative PCR is rapidly becoming the standard method for analyzing gene expression in a wide variety of biological samples however it can suffer from significant error if stably expressed reference genes are not identified on which to base the analysis. Suitable reference genes for qPCR experiments on Staphylococcus pseudintermedius have yet to be identified. Results: Three reference genes in S. pseudintermedius were identified and validated from a set of eight potential genes (proC, gyrB, rplD, rho, rpoA, ftsZ, recA, sodA). Two strains of S. pseudintermedius were used, and primer specificity and efficiency were confirmed and measured. Ranking of the genes with respect to expression stability revealed gyrB, rho and recA as the best reference genes. This combination was used to quantify expression of a single biofilm associated gene, icaA, in logarithmic, stationary and biofilm growth phases, revealing that expression was significantly upregulated in the biofilm growth phase in both strains. Conclusion: Three reference genes, gyrB, rho and recA, were identified and validated for use as reference genes for quantitative PCR experiments in S. pseudintermedius. Also, the biofilm associated gene icaA was shown to be significantly upregulated in biofilm samples, consistent with its role in biofilm production.
Published on 10/12/2014
Document details: 38 downloads.
This article is from BMC Research Notes , volume 4 . Abstract Background: Microbial biofilms are communities of bacteria adhered to a surface and surrounded by an extracellular polymeric matrix. Biofilms have been associated with increased antibiotic resistance and tolerance to the immune system. Staphylococcus epidermidis is the major bacterial species found in biofilm-related infections on indwelling medical devices. Obtaining high quality mRNA from biofilms is crucial to validate the transcriptional measurements associated with the switching to the biofilm mode of growth. Therefore, we selected three commercially available RNA extraction kits with distinct characteristics, including those using silica membrane or organic extraction methods, and enzymatic or mechanical cell lysis, and evaluated the RNA quality obtained from two distinct S. epidermidis bacterial biofilms. Results: RNA extracted using the different kits was evaluated for quantity, purity, integrity, and functionally. All kits were able to extract intact and functional total RNA from the biofilms generated from each S. epidermidis strain. The results demonstrated that the kit based on mechanical lysis and organic extraction (FastRNA® Pro Blue) was the only one that was able to isolate pure and large quantities of RNA. Normalized expression of the icaA virulence gene showed that RNA extracted with PureLink™ had a significant lower concentration of icaA mRNA transcripts than the other kits tested. Conclusions: When working with complex samples, such as biofilms, that contain a high content extracellular polysaccharide and proteins, special care should be taken when selecting the appropriate RNA extraction system, in order to obtain accurate, reproducible, and biologically significant results. Among the RNA extraction kits tested, FastRNA® Pro Blue was the best option for both S. epidermidis biofilms used.
Published on 10/29/2014
Document details: 23 downloads.
This article is from PLoS Pathogens , volume 10 . Abstract Polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), also known as poly-N-acetyl-β-(1–6)-glucosamine (PIA/PNAG) is an important component of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms and also contributes to resistance to phagocytosis. The proteins IcaA, IcaD, IcaB, and IcaC are encoded within the intercellular adhesin (ica) operon and synthesize PIA/PNAG. We discovered a mechanism of phase variation in PIA/PNAG expression that appears to involve slipped-strand mispairing. The process is reversible and RecA-independent, and involves the expansion and contraction of a simple tetranucleotide tandem repeat within icaC. Inactivation of IcaC results in a PIA/PNAG-negative phenotype. A PIA/PNAG-hyperproducing strain gained a fitness advantage in vitro following the icaC mutation and loss of PIA/PNAG production. The mutation was also detected in two clinical isolates, suggesting that under certain conditions, loss of PIA/PNAG production may be advantageous during infection. There was also a survival advantage for an icaC-negative strain harboring intact icaADB genes relative to an isogenic icaADBC deletion mutant. Together, these results suggest that inactivation of icaC is a mode of phase variation for PIA/PNAG expression, that high-level production of PIA/PNAG carries a fitness cost, and that icaADB may contribute to bacterial fitness, by an unknown mechanism, in the absence of an intact icaC gene and PIA/PNAG production.
Published on 10/11/2014
Document details: 88 downloads.
Biofilm Formation and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus epidermidis Strains from a Hospital Environment .
This article is from International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , volume 11 . Abstract The hospital environment microflora comprise a wide variety of microorganisms which are more or less pathogenic and where staphylococci are one of the most common types. The aim of the presented study was to evaluate the prevalence of the biofilm forming coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) in a hospital environment as a risk factor for nosocomial infections. Among 122 isolated and tested strains of CoNS the most frequent were: S. epidermidis—32 strains, S. haemolyticus—31 strains, S. capitis subsp. capitis—21 strains, S. hominis—11 strains, S. cohnii subsp. cohnii—nine strains. In case of CoNS, the main molecule responsible for intercellular adhesion is a polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), encoded on the ica gene operon. The analysis revealed the presence of the icaADBC operon genes in 46.88% of S. epidermidis isolates. IcaA and icaD were present in 34.38% and 28.13% of strains respectively while IcaC gene was present in 37.50% of strains. IcaB gene was found in 21.88% of S. epidermidis strains. In 15 (63%) strains all icaADBC operon genes were observed. The assessment of antibacterial drugs susceptibility demonstrated that analyzed CoNS strains were highly resistant to macrolides and lincosamides and more sensitive to rifampicin and linezolid. Our data indicates that the hospital environment can be colonized by biofilm forming coagulase-negative staphylococci and transmission of these strains can cause an increased risk of serious nosocomial infections.
Published on 10/21/2014
Document details: 52 downloads.
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Published on 04/03/2011
Document details: 27 downloads.
The Publication of The Ocean View–Merced Heights–Ingleside Community Association, Working Toward the Improvement and Stabilization of an Interracial Community
Published on 07/17/2019
Document details: 10 pages. 2 downloads.