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Symplectic Dilations, Gaussian States and Gaussian Channels
By elementary matrix algebra we show that every real $2n \times 2n$ matrix admits a dilation to an element of the real symplectic group $Sp (2(n+m))$ for some nonnegative integer $m.$ Our methods do not yield the minimum value of $m,$ for which such a dilation is possible. After listing some of the main properties of Gaussian states in $L^2 (\mathbb{R}^n),$ we analyse the implications of symplectic dilations in the study of quantum Gaussian channels which lead to some interesting open problems, particularly, in the context of the work of Heinosaari, Holevo and Wolf \cite{3}.
Published on 06/29/2018
Document details: 1 download.

Gaussian transformations and distillation of entangled Gaussian states
We prove that it is impossible to distill more entanglement from a single copy of a two-mode bipartite entangled Gaussian state via LOCC Gaussian operations. More generally, we show that any hypothetical distillation protocol for Gaussian states involving only Gaussian operations would be a deterministic protocol. Finally, we argue that the protocol considered by Eisert et al. [quant-ph/0204052] is the optimum Gaussian distillation protocol for two copies of entangled Gaussian states.
Published on 09/19/2013
Document details: 34 downloads.

The characterization of Gaussian operations and Distillation of Gaussian States
We characterize the class of all physical operations that transform Gaussian states to Gaussian states. We show that this class coincides with that of all operations which can be performed on Gaussian states using linear optical elements and homodyne measurements. For bipartite systems we characterize the processes which can be implemented by local operations and classical communication, as well as those that can be implemented using positive partial transpose preserving maps. As an application, we show that Gaussian states cannot be distilled by local Gaussian operations and classical communication. We also define and characterize positive (but not completely positive) Gaussian maps.
Published on 09/19/2013
Document details: 21 downloads.

Operational Discord Measure for Gaussian States with Gaussian Measurements
We introduce an operational discord-type measure for quantifying nonclassical correlations in bipartite Gaussian states based on using Gaussian measurements. We refer to this measure as operational Gaussian discord (OGD). It is defined as the difference between the entropies of two conditional probability distributions associated to one subsystem, which are obtained by performing optimal local and joint Gaussian measurements. We demonstrate the operational significance of this measure in terms of a Gaussian quantum protocol for extracting maximal information about an encoded classical signal. As examples, we calculate OGD for several Gaussian states in the standard form.
Published on 06/26/2018
Document details: 9 downloads.

Gaussian entanglement of symmetric two-mode Gaussian states
A Gaussian degree of entanglement for a symmetric two-mode Gaussian state can be defined as its distance to the set of all separable two-mode Gaussian states. The principal property that enables us to evaluate both Bures distance and relative entropy between symmetric two-mode Gaussian states is the diagonalization of their covariance matrices under the same beam-splitter transformation. The multiplicativity property of the Uhlmann fidelity and the additivity of the relative entropy allow one to finally deal with a single-mode optimization problem in both cases. We find that only the Bures-distance Gaussian entanglement is consistent with the exact entanglement of formation.
Published on 09/17/2013
Document details: 48 downloads.

Quantum steering of Gaussian states via non-Gaussian measurements
Quantum steering---a strong correlation to be verified even when one party or its measuring device is fully untrusted---not only provides a profound insight into quantum physics but also offers a crucial basis for practical applications. For continuous-variable (CV) systems, Gaussian states among others have been extensively studied, however, mostly confined to Gaussian measurements. While the fulfillment of Gaussian criterion is sufficient to detect CV steering, whether it is also necessary for Gaussian states is a question of fundamental importance in many contexts. This critically questions the validity of characterizations established only under Gaussian measurements like the quantification of steering and the monogamy relations. Here, we introduce a formalism based on local uncertainty relations of non-Gaussian measurements, which is shown to manifest quantum steering of some Gaussian states that Gaussian criterion fails to detect. To this aim, we look into Gaussian states of practical relevance, i.e. two-mode squeezed states under a lossy and an amplifying Gaussian channel. Our finding significantly modifies the characteristics of Gaussian-state steering so far established such as monogamy relations and one-way steering under Gaussian measurements, thus opening a new direction for critical studies beyond Gaussian regime.
Published on 06/28/2018
Document details: 1 download.

No-activation theorem for Gaussian nonclassical correlations by Gaussian operations
We study general quantum correlations of continuous variable Gaussian states and their interplay with entanglement. Specifically, we investigate the existence of a quantum protocol activating all nonclassical correlations between the subsystems of an input bipartite continuous variable system, into output entanglement between the system and a set of ancillae. For input Gaussian states, we prove that such an activation protocol cannot be accomplished with Gaussian operations, as the latter are unable to create any output entanglement from an initial separable yet nonclassical state in a worst-case scenario. We then construct a faithful non-Gaussian activation protocol, encompassing infinite-dimensional generalizations of controlled-NOT gates to generate entanglement between system and ancillae, in direct analogy with the finite-dimensional case. We finally calculate the negativity of quantumness, an operational measure of nonclassical correlations defined in terms of the performance of the activation protocol, for relevant classes of two-mode Gaussian states.
Published on 06/29/2018
Document details: 3 downloads.

Interconversion of pure Gaussian states using non-Gaussian operations
We analyze the conditions under which local operations and classical communication enable entanglement transformations within the set of bipartite pure Gaussian states. A set of necessary and sufficient conditions had been found in [Quant. Inf. Comp. 3, 211 (2003)] for the interconversion between such states that is restricted to Gaussian local operations and classical communication. Here, we exploit majorization theory in order to derive more general (sufficient) conditions for the interconversion between bipartite pure Gaussian states that goes beyond Gaussian local operations. While our technique is applicable to an arbitrary number of modes for each party, it allows us to exhibit surprisingly simple examples of 2 x 2 Gaussian states that necessarily require non-Gaussian local operations to be transformed into each other.
Published on 06/30/2018
Document details: 3 downloads.

Driving non-Gaussian to Gaussian states with linear optics
We introduce a protocol that maps finite-dimensional pure input states onto approximately Gaussian states in an iterative procedure. This protocol can be used to distill highly entangled bi-partite Gaussian states from a supply of weakly entangled pure Gaussian states. The entire procedure requires only the use of passive optical elements and photon detectors that solely distinguish between the presence and absence of photons.
Published on 09/20/2013
Document details: 34 downloads.

Gaussian Process Regression with Heteroscedastic or Non-Gaussian Residuals
Gaussian Process (GP) regression models typically assume that residuals are Gaussian and have the same variance for all observations. However, applications with input-dependent noise (heteroscedastic residuals) frequently arise in practice, as do applications in which the residuals do not have a Gaussian distribution. In this paper, we propose a GP Regression model with a latent variable that serves as an additional unobserved covariate for the regression. This model (which we call GPLC) allows for heteroscedasticity since it allows the function to have a changing partial derivative with respect to this unobserved covariate. With a suitable covariance function, our GPLC model can handle (a) Gaussian residuals with input-dependent variance, or (b) non-Gaussian residuals with input-dependent variance, or (c) Gaussian residuals with constant variance. We compare our model, using synthetic datasets, with a model proposed by Goldberg, Williams and Bishop (1998), which we refer to as GPLV, which only deals with case (a), as well as a standard GP model which can handle only case (c). Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods are developed for both modelsl. Experiments show that when the data is heteroscedastic, both GPLC and GPLV give better results (smaller mean squared error and negative log-probability density) than standard GP regression. In addition, when the residual are Gaussian, our GPLC model is generally nearly as good as GPLV, while when the residuals are non-Gaussian, our GPLC model is better than GPLV.
Published on 09/22/2013
Document details: 42 downloads.
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