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Symplectic Dilations, Gaussian States and Gaussian Channels
By elementary matrix algebra we show that every real $2n \times 2n$ matrix admits a dilation to an element of the real symplectic group $Sp (2(n+m))$ for some nonnegative integer $m.$ Our methods do not yield the minimum value of $m,$ for which such a dilation is possible. After listing some of the main properties of Gaussian states in $L^2 (\mathbb{R}^n),$ we analyse the implications of symplectic dilations in the study of quantum Gaussian channels which lead to some interesting open problems, particularly, in the context of the work of Heinosaari, Holevo and Wolf \cite{3}.
Published on 06/29/2018

Operational Discord Measure for Gaussian States with Gaussian Measurements
We introduce an operational discord-type measure for quantifying nonclassical correlations in bipartite Gaussian states based on using Gaussian measurements. We refer to this measure as operational Gaussian discord (OGD). It is defined as the difference between the entropies of two conditional probability distributions associated to one subsystem, which are obtained by performing optimal local and joint Gaussian measurements. We demonstrate the operational significance of this measure in terms of a Gaussian quantum protocol for extracting maximal information about an encoded classical signal. As examples, we calculate OGD for several Gaussian states in the standard form.
Published on 06/26/2018
Document details: 9 downloads.

The characterization of Gaussian operations and Distillation of Gaussian States
We characterize the class of all physical operations that transform Gaussian states to Gaussian states. We show that this class coincides with that of all operations which can be performed on Gaussian states using linear optical elements and homodyne measurements. For bipartite systems we characterize the processes which can be implemented by local operations and classical communication, as well as those that can be implemented using positive partial transpose preserving maps. As an application, we show that Gaussian states cannot be distilled by local Gaussian operations and classical communication. We also define and characterize positive (but not completely positive) Gaussian maps.
Published on 09/19/2013
Document details: 29 downloads.

Gaussian entanglement of symmetric two-mode Gaussian states
A Gaussian degree of entanglement for a symmetric two-mode Gaussian state can be defined as its distance to the set of all separable two-mode Gaussian states. The principal property that enables us to evaluate both Bures distance and relative entropy between symmetric two-mode Gaussian states is the diagonalization of their covariance matrices under the same beam-splitter transformation. The multiplicativity property of the Uhlmann fidelity and the additivity of the relative entropy allow one to finally deal with a single-mode optimization problem in both cases. We find that only the Bures-distance Gaussian entanglement is consistent with the exact entanglement of formation.
Published on 09/17/2013
Document details: 54 downloads.

Gaussian transformations and distillation of entangled Gaussian states
We prove that it is impossible to distill more entanglement from a single copy of a two-mode bipartite entangled Gaussian state via LOCC Gaussian operations. More generally, we show that any hypothetical distillation protocol for Gaussian states involving only Gaussian operations would be a deterministic protocol. Finally, we argue that the protocol considered by Eisert et al. [quant-ph/0204052] is the optimum Gaussian distillation protocol for two copies of entangled Gaussian states.
Published on 09/19/2013
Document details: 47 downloads.

Interconversion of pure Gaussian states using non-Gaussian operations
We analyze the conditions under which local operations and classical communication enable entanglement transformations within the set of bipartite pure Gaussian states. A set of necessary and sufficient conditions had been found in [Quant. Inf. Comp. 3, 211 (2003)] for the interconversion between such states that is restricted to Gaussian local operations and classical communication. Here, we exploit majorization theory in order to derive more general (sufficient) conditions for the interconversion between bipartite pure Gaussian states that goes beyond Gaussian local operations. While our technique is applicable to an arbitrary number of modes for each party, it allows us to exhibit surprisingly simple examples of 2 x 2 Gaussian states that necessarily require non-Gaussian local operations to be transformed into each other.
Published on 06/30/2018
Document details: 2 downloads.

Quantum steering of Gaussian states via non-Gaussian measurements
Quantum steering---a strong correlation to be verified even when one party or its measuring device is fully untrusted---not only provides a profound insight into quantum physics but also offers a crucial basis for practical applications. For continuous-variable (CV) systems, Gaussian states among others have been extensively studied, however, mostly confined to Gaussian measurements. While the fulfillment of Gaussian criterion is sufficient to detect CV steering, whether it is also necessary for Gaussian states is a question of fundamental importance in many contexts. This critically questions the validity of characterizations established only under Gaussian measurements like the quantification of steering and the monogamy relations. Here, we introduce a formalism based on local uncertainty relations of non-Gaussian measurements, which is shown to manifest quantum steering of some Gaussian states that Gaussian criterion fails to detect. To this aim, we look into Gaussian states of practical relevance, i.e. two-mode squeezed states under a lossy and an amplifying Gaussian channel. Our finding significantly modifies the characteristics of Gaussian-state steering so far established such as monogamy relations and one-way steering under Gaussian measurements, thus opening a new direction for critical studies beyond Gaussian regime.
Published on 06/28/2018
Document details: 1 download.

Key distillation from Gaussian states by Gaussian operations
We study the secrecy properties of Gaussian states under Gaussian operations. Although such operations are useless for quantum distillation, we prove that it is possible to distill a secret key secure against any attack from sufficiently entangled Gaussian states with non-positive partial transposition. Moreover, all such states allow for key distillation, when Eve is assumed to perform finite-size coherent attacks before the reconciliation process.
Published on 09/19/2013
Document details: 43 downloads.

On the impossibility of distilling Gaussian states with Gaussian operations
We show that no distillation protocol for Gaussian quantum states exists that relies on (i) arbitrary local unitary operations that preserve the Gaussian character of the state and (ii) homodyne detection together with classical communication and postprocessing by means of local Gaussian unitary operations on two symmetric identically prepared copies. This is in contrast to the finite-dimensional case, where entanglement can be distilled in an iterative protocol using two copies at a time. The ramifications for the distribution of Gaussian states over large distances will be outlined. We also comment on the generality of the approach and sketch the most general form of a Gaussian local operation with classical communication in a bipartite setting.
Published on 09/19/2013
Document details: 48 downloads.

Non-Gaussian Spectra
Gaussian cosmic microwave background skies are fully specified by the power spectrum. The conventional method of characterizing non-Gaussian skies is to evaluate higher order moments, the n-point functions and their Fourier transforms. We argue that this method is inefficient, due to the redundancy of information existing in the complete set of moments. In this paper we propose a set of new statistics or non-Gaussian spectra to be extracted out of the angular distribution of the Fourier transform of the temperature anisotropies in the small field limit. These statistics complement the power spectrum and act as localization, shape, and connectedness statistics. They quantify generic non-Gaussian structure, and may be used in more general image processing tasks. We concentrate on a subset of these statistics and argue that while they carry no information in Gaussian theories they may be the best arena for making predictions in some non-Gaussian theories. As examples of applications we consider superposed Gaussian and non-Gaussian signals, such as point sources in Gaussian theories or the realistic Kaiser-Stebbins effect. We show that in these theories non-Gaussianity is only present in a ring in Fourier space, which is best isolated in our formalism. Subtle but strongly non-Gaussian theories are also written down for which only non-Gaussian spectra may accuse non-Gaussianity.
Published on 09/20/2013
Document details: 26 downloads.
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