This article is from Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine , volume 3 . Abstract The incidence of type II diabetes is increasing across the world. Dietary modifications help the patients to control blood glucose. Traditional herbs and spices are commonly used for control of glucose among which cinnamon (Ròu Guì; Cinnamomum cassia) has the greatest effect. Research has shown that adding cinnamon to diet can help to lower the glucose level. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cinnamon on the glucose level in blood. This was a Randomized clinical trial in which 70 Patients with type II diabetes were assigned randomly two groups (35 in cinnamon and 35 in placebo group). The groups were matched in terms of body mass index (BMI), HbAlc and fasting blood sugar (FBS). Patients were treated with cinnamon and the placebo group was treated with placebo in addition to their routine treatment for 60 days. FBG levels and glycosylated hemoglobin of patients on the first day, and 1 and 2 months after treatment were measured. Data were analyzed using t-test and paired t-test in Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).16 software. The mean levels of FBS before, and 1 and 2 months after the intervention were 174 ± 59, 169 ± 43 and 177 ± 45; respectively. The levels of HbAlc before and after the intervention in the cinnamon group were (8.9 ± 1.7 and 8.9 ± 1.6). There was no significant difference in FBS and glycosylated hemoglobin levels between the two groups (P = 0.738 and P = 0.87, respectively). Results showed that using certain amount of cinnamon for 60 days did not change the glucose level of diabetic patients. So, using cinnamon to type II diabetes patients cannot be recommended and more studies are needed in future.
Published on 10/23/2014
Document details: 12 downloads.
This article is from Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives , volume 2 . Abstract The number of medications now available to treat Type 2 Diabetes has been expanding quickly over the past two decades. At the same time, the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has also been rising. Individuals with diabetes are 1.6 times more likely than those without diabetes to use modalities that are not considered part of conventional medicine. Numerous dietary supplements are available over the counter and are being advertized to treat diabetes and its co morbidities. No conclusive data on their clinical benefit, potential harms, dosing or interaction with other medications is yet available. But for clinicians to maintain a trusting relationship with their patient, a respectful non-confrontational attitude is needed to encourage open dialogue, provide accurate information, and facilitate changes to the medical regimen. It is essential that clinicians stay informed and advise their patient with the available scientific data accordingly. In this review, we focus on current data on six supplements commonly encountered in community practice for treating diabetes, including cinnamon, fenugreek, vinegar, ginseng, bitter melon, gymnema, chromium, and vanadium.
Published on 10/28/2014
Document details: 61 downloads.
Cinnamon extract inhibits ?-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats.
This article is from Nutrition & Metabolism , volume 8 . Abstract Background: α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods: The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results: Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt.) significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52.0% in maltose and sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats respectively, compared to the control. On the other hand, in rats that received glucose and cinnamon extract, postprandial hyperglycemia was not effectively suppressed, which indicates that the observed postprandial glycemic amelioration is majorly due to α-glucosidase inhibition. Conclusions: The current study demonstrates one of the mechanisms in which cinnamon bark extract effectively inhibits α-glucosidase leading to suppression of postprandial hyperglycemia in STZ induced diabetic rats loaded with maltose, sucrose. This bark extract shows competitive, reversible inhibition on α-glucosidase enzyme. Cinnamon extract could be used as a potential nutraceutical agent for treating postprandial hyperglycemia. In future, specific inhibitor has to be isolated from the crude extract, characterized and therapeutically exploited.
Published on 10/27/2014
Document details: 30 downloads.
The aim of this study was to determine the perception of Luwu Buginese ethnic of diabetes mellitus ( lasagolla) and determine the role of herbal treatments for diabetes mellitus ( bib'bi leaves , betel nuts and durian roots ) as belonging to Buginese ethnic and tradition in Luwu . Research used a qualitative approach of ethnologic . The findings of this study described that Buginese ethnic Luwu perceive diabetes mellitus is a disease caused by a person consumes sugar that can lead to excessively so difficult wound healing . Someone stated that he was suffering from diabetes mellitus through 1 ). Views of others , 2 ). Same symptoms experienced by patients with diabetes mellitus , 3 ) result of modern medical examination . Patients with diabetes mellitus were included in the Buginese ethnic Luwu specifically use herbal remedies such as sugar apple leaf , bibbi leaf , Singapore leaf , guava leaves betel leaves , leaf gedi , leaf cat whiskers , mangosteen rind , betel nuts, seppang wood , cinnamon , tebba ' coppeng, Cempa - Cempa sibokori , areca roots and herbs . The use of herbs is based on compatibility with diabetes mellitus and the ease of obtaining . Herbs are used in obtained by means of ; a. bought in the market or herbalist , b. g iven by the child , family , neighbors or friends , c. Taken around the house , d. Taken from out of town Palopo ( Sengkang, Malili , Borneo , Malaysia and Jakarta ), e. Taken at sea . Herbs in though with boiled , brewed with hot water , and pounded and then inserted into the capsule . C onclusions, in the theory findings, the diabetes mellitus in Buginese ethnic Luwu get herbal medicine for treating diabetes mellitus in a way that is simple and easy . Patients with diabetes mellitus in Buginese ethnic Luwu in treating the serious wounds utilize medical care services to avoid amputation
Published on 01/06/2015
Document details: 65 downloads.
Beneficial Effects of Cinnamon on the Metabolic Syndrome, Inflammation, and Pain, and Mechanisms Underlying These Effects - A Review.
This article is from Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine , volume 2 . Abstract Cinnamon is one of the most important herbal drugs and has been widely used in Asia for more than 4000 years. As a folk medicine, cinnamon has been traditionally applied to the treatment of inflammatory disorders and gastric diseases. After chemical profiling of cinnamon's components, their biological activities including antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, antitumor, antihypertension, antilipemic, antidiabetes, gastroprotective and immunomodulatory were reported by many investigators. As a result, current studies have been performed mostly focusing on the bioactivity of cinnamon toward the recently generalized metabolic syndrome involving diabetes. In this review article, we provide an overview of the recent literature describing cinnamon's potential for preventing the metabolic syndrome.
Published on 10/23/2014
Document details: 16 downloads.
Cinnamon Extract Enhances Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and C2C12 Myocytes by Inducing LKB1-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling.
This article is from PLoS ONE , volume 9 . Abstract We previously demonstrated that cinnamon extract (CE) ameliorates type 1 diabetes induced by streptozotocin in rats through the up-regulation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in both muscle and adipose tissues. This present study was aimed at clarifying the detailed mechanism(s) with which CE increases the glucose uptake in vivo and in cell culture systems using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes in vitro. Specific inhibitors of key enzymes in insulin signaling and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways, as well as small interference RNA, were used to examine the role of these kinases in the CE-induced glucose uptake. The results showed that CE stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. An AMPK inhibitor and LKB1 siRNA blocked the CE-induced glucose uptake. We also found for the first time that insulin suppressed AMPK activation in the adipocyte. To investigate the effect of CE on type 2 diabetes in vivo, we further performed oral glucose tolerance tests and insulin tolerance tests in type 2 diabetes model rats administered with CE. The CE improved glucose tolerance in oral glucose tolerance tests, but not insulin sensitivity in insulin tolerance test. In summary, these results indicate that CE ameliorates type 2 diabetes by inducing GLUT4 translocation via the AMPK signaling pathway. We also found insulin antagonistically regulates the activation of AMPK.
Published on 10/26/2014
Document details: 38 downloads.
This article is from BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , volume 12 . Abstract Background: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is common in patients with chronic disease such as diabetes mellitus. The primary objective of the study was to determine the overall prevalence and type of CAM use in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) in Western Sydney and to compare the prevalence and factors associated with CAM use with the literature. Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional study was undertaken using a self-completed questionnaire distributed to patients with DM attending a public hospital and specialist endocrinology clinics in the region. The type of DM and pattern of CAM utilisation were analyzed. Results: Sixty nine people responded to the questionnaire: age range of 18-75 years during a twelve week collection period. Overall, 32 respondents with diabetes were using some form of CAM, resulting in a utilisation rate of 46.3%. Twenty of the 32 CAM users used CAM specifically to treat their diabetes accounting for 28.9% of the respondent sample population. Multivitamins (40%), cinnamon, Co-enzyme q10 and prayer were the most frequently used CAM modalities. There was no significant difference between males and females, age range, income or diabetes complications between CAM and non-CAM users. (p values each > 0.05) The factor most significantly associated with CAM usage was being born overseas (p = 0.044). Conclusions: Almost half the respondents (46.3%) used CAM: 28% used CAM specifically to treat their diabetes. Individuals born overseas were significantly more likely to use CAM than those born in Australia. Other factors such as age, gender, wealth and duration of living with diabetes were not associated with higher rate of CAM usage.
Published on 10/24/2014
Document details: 37 downloads.
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of cinnamon on the levels of micronuclei and antioxidant enzymes in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Hyperglycemia was induced in rats by a single injection of alloxan at 150 mg/kg body weight intraperitonealy. Twenty four adult male rats were divided equally into four groups: Group I: control; Group II: diabetic rats; Group III: rats treated with cinnamon; Group IV diabetic rats treated with cinnamon. Rats were sacrificed after 2 weeks of cinnamon treatment and samples from bone marrow and liver prepared for the determination of micronucleus and antioxidant enzymes assays, respectively. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were examined. In rats bone marrow cells, no significant increases of the frequencies of cells with micronuclei were observed at dose of 150 mg alloxan/kg b. w. Combined treatment with alloxan and cinnamon failed to induce micronuclei in bone marrow cells. In the present work, antioxidant parameters, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were significantly increased in the liver tissue with a concomitant decrease in GSH in diabetic group. Treatment with cinnamon restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes of the diabetic rats. The present investigation suggest that cinnamon has a protective effect on the bone marrow and liver cells in experimental diabetes mellitus.
Published on 03/19/2015
Document details: 65 downloads.
Food items contributing most to variation in antioxidant intake; a cross-sectional study among Norwegian women.
This article is from BMC Public Health , volume 14 . Abstract Background: Fruit and vegetable intake has been found to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer and diabetes mellitus. It is possible that antioxidants play a large part in this protective effect. However, which foods account for the variation in antioxidant intake in a population is not very clear. We used food frequency data from a population-based sample of women to identify the food items that contributed most to the variation in antioxidant intake in Norwegian diet. Methods: We used data from a study conducted among participants in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP), the national program which invites women aged 50–69 years to mammographic screening every 2 years. A subset of 6514 women who attended the screening in 2006/2007 completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Daily intake of energy, nutrients and antioxidant intake were estimated. We used multiple linear regression analysis to capture the variation in antioxidant intake. Results: The mean (SD) antioxidant intake was 23.0 (8.5) mmol/day. Coffee consumption explained 54% of the variation in antioxidant intake, while fruits and vegetables explained 22%. The twenty food items that contributed most to the total variation in antioxidant intake explained 98% of the variation in intake. These included different types of coffee, tea, red wine, blueberries, walnuts, oranges, cinnamon and broccoli. Conclusions: In this study we identified a list of food items which capture the variation in antioxidant intake among these women. The major contributors to dietary total antioxidant intake were coffee, tea, red wine, blueberries, walnuts, oranges, cinnamon and broccoli. These items should be assessed in as much detail as possible in studies that wish to capture the variation in antioxidant intake.
Published on 10/24/2014
Document details: 56 downloads.
Published on 01/25/2013
Document details: 354 pages. 58 downloads.