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Alternatives to Animal Testing
Opinion leaders in science and politics examine findings and legislation in alternatives to animal testing! Refine, reduce, replace - These are the three demands that scientists have placed upon themselves in their search for alternatives to animal testing. Indeed much interdisciplinary research is being carried on today, and new fields have emerged, such as in-vitro toxicology. The three R's call for new scientific insights. Moreover, validation and acceptance strategies have to be adapted, a process of much ongoing interest and vital concern to the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Researchers need to know exactly what has been achieved and accepted in alternatives to animal testing in science and politics. In this book they have the opportunity to benefit from the knowledge and expertise of leading researchers and influential representatives of national and international regulatory authorities.
Category: Social Science. ISBN: 9783527300433

Alternatives To Animal Testing
An up-to-date discussion of the development of alternatives to animal testing, ideal for professionals and academics.
Category: Technology. ISBN: 9780854042111

Teratological Testing
The study of birth defects has assumed an importance even greater now than in the past because mortality rates attributed to congenital anomalies have declined far less than those for other causes of death, such as infectious and nutritional diseases. It is estimated that as many as 50% of all pregnancies terminate as miscarriages. In the majority of cases this is the result of faulty development. Major congenital malformations are found in at least 2% of all liveborn infants, and 22% of all stillbirths and infant deaths are associated with severe congenital anomalies. Teratological studies of an experimental nature are neither ethical nor justifiable in humans. Numerous investigations have been carried out in laboratory animals and other experimental models in order to improve our understanding of abnormal intra-uterine development. In less than two decades the field of experimental teratology has advanced phenomenally. As a result of the wide range of information that is now accumulating, it has become possible to obtain an insight into the causes, mec.;hanisms and prevention of birth defects. However, considerable work will be needed before these problems can be resolved. The contributions in this volume deal primarily with the areas of terato logical evaluation and the use of selected animal models for the study of con genital anomalies. It is not only a documentation of the latest experimental work, but it also indicates new and important areas for future research.
Category: Science. ISBN: 9780852002711

Principles of Toxicology Testing
Nationally, toxicology programs have evolved from a traditional exploration of the chemistry and applied toxicity of chemicals and drugs to a more comprehensive study of toxicology and toxicology testing as independent entities. Consequently, the second edition of Principles of Toxicology Testing starts with basic toxicological principles, including absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of toxins, including chemicals and drugs. The book then continues with animal ( in vivo ) and in vitro toxicology testing methods associated with toxicological analysis and preclinical drug development. As in the first edition, the book begins with an introduction into the fundamentals of toxicology (Section I) to prepare readers for the subsequent topics and continues through with a discussion of toxicokinetics and human risk assessment. This introductory material is useful in understanding the applications of toxicology testing. Section II describes the fundamental principles of toxicology testing in animals in greater detail. This section describes acute toxicity studies as well as subchronic and chronic studies performed on animals. Special emphasis is placed on study design and determination of classical indicators for acute and chronic testing, such as the LD50. The book examines other short- and long-term animal toxicity testing methodologies, including dermal, ocular, and reproductive toxicity testing. In addition, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity studies are also discussed in separate chapters. Section III introduces and discusses in vitro alternatives to animal toxicology tests. This section emphasizes cell culture methodology and cellular methods for acute systemic toxicity, target organ toxicity, and local toxicity. The contributors present the advantages and disadvantages of alternative methods. They also describe the use of high-throughput screening and its applications, the concepts of standardization and validation of in vitro techniques (especially large, organized validation efforts currently supported by US and EU regulatory agencies), and the theories supporting the development of in vitro methodologies. This second edition is a must-read for undergraduate and graduate toxicology students. Industrial and academic research centers will also find the text useful for establishing a toxicology testing laboratory.
Category: Medicine. ISBN: 9781842145296

Metal Carcinogenesis Testing
Metal Carcinogenesis Testing explains fundamental principles of metal carcinogenesis as they are currently understood, and provides detailed practical descriptions of rapid and inexpensive in vitro assay methodology presently in use for the detection of potentially carci nogenic metals and their compounds. Mounting experimental evidence has suggested that a number of metals and their compounds are potentially carcinogenic to humans. Since humans are exposed to these potentially carcinogenic metals in industrial situations and through environmental pollution, it is essential that experimental protocols be available to identify the specific metal compounds that are potentially carcinogenic. This book affords a thorough description of the various carcinogenesis test systems available for metals, centering on those that are rapid, inexpensive, and most reliable. The principles are discussed at the level of human exposure, of animal studies, and of research in vitro. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms of metal-induced cancer are considered at each ofthese three levels.In large part, the emphasis rests on the use of in vitro, biochemical and bacterial studies, including tissue culture, because these methods are the basis of the rapid and inexpensive screening of potentially carcinogenic substances.
Category: Medicine. ISBN: 9780896030176

Mouse Behavioral Testing
Mouse Behavioral Testing: How to Use Mice in Behavioral Neuroscience provides detailed explanations of how to conduct an experiment on mouse behavior from the initial planning of the research design through every step of the process until the data analysis phase. The book discusses the practical matters that need to be considered carefully when working with any species of animal, such as how many animals need to be tested. It describes the tests and techniques devised specifically for work with mice. Every step of the research process is illustrated with real situations encountered in previous studies. All examples are based on real experiments, and extensive details of several published experiments are provided. The essential features of a behavioral test protocol are outlined, and several complete protocols are provided. Methods to balance the order of tests and determine throughput are described, then a completely balanced order of tests in a complex experiment is presented. The book will be useful for those already familiar with the general principles of research but are new to the realm of behavioral testing of live mice. It will also serve as a text for a formal course, most likely at the graduate level. A guide to running a behavioral testing lab, including the many aspects of mouse research beyond the confines of the specific test Diagrams and photographs are shown for many kinds of apparatus and test situations with sufficient details such as dimensions to enable building of replicas Provides step-by-step instructions on planning and executing behavioral experiments in order to run them successfully
Category: Nature. ISBN: 9780123756749

Methods in Bioengineering: Alternative Technologies to Animal Testing
Written and edited by recognized experts in the field, the new Artech House Methods in Bioengineering book series offers detailed guidance on authoritative methods for addressing specific bioengineering challenges. Offering a highly practical presentation of each topic, each book provides research engineers, scientists, and students with step-by-step procedures, clear examples, and effective ways to overcome problems that may be encountered. Providing alternatives to animal testing is one of the hottest topics in biomedical research, and this groundbreaking volume addresses this critical issues head on. This unique book presents techniques and methods at the forefront of scientific research that have the potential to replace certain whole animal tests. Moreover, this book provides a platform where other widely accepted techniques and scientific advancements can be collated into a concise set of methods that can be implemented within both academic and industrial communities.
Category: Medicine. ISBN: 9781608070114

Guidelines for Design, Production and Testing of Animal-Drawn Carts
Compiled on behalf of the Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA) as a resource book on animal-drawn carts, these guidelines cover all aspects of their design, production and marketing. Full details - with many three dimensional drawings - are given of the construction of a range of ox and donkey carts, including wheels and axles, with information on materials and costs. Information is based as far as possible on designs that have been shown to work effectively. Other sections cover harnessing of oxen and donkeys, manufacture and marketing, credit and design standards. The guidelines are aimed at promoting improved supply, quality and use of animal-drawn carts in the region.
Category: Social Science. ISBN: 9781780445076

Advances In Animal Alternatives For Safety And Efficacy Testing
Presents up-to-date concepts and approaches to the theory and practice of alternatives to animal testing and promotes technology transfer. The text addresses some of the ramifications of the National Institutes of Health Revitalization Act of 1993 which instructs the NIH to fund replacement, reduction and refinement alternatives. It also describes
Category: MEDICAL / Pharmacology. ISBN:

Advances In Animal Alternatives For Safety And Efficacy Testing
Presents up-to-date concepts and approaches to the theory and practice of alternatives to animal testing and promotes technology transfer. The text addresses some of the ramifications of the National Institutes of Health Revitalization Act of 1993 which instructs the NIH to fund replacement, reduction and refinement alternatives. It also describes
Category: MEDICAL / Pharmacology. ISBN:
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