The Russian Federation experienced a fall in GDP per capita of nearly 50 per cent during the 1990s, and following the sudden fall in value of the rouble in 1998, international concerns grew over to the rising level of food insecurity and poverty in the country. This report has been produced as part of a FAO technical assistance project, and examines the state of food security in the Russian Federation and the prospects for addressing these challenges in the future. Issues discussed include: the changes in agricultural production during the 1990s, the main indicators of food availability and access to food by the population, public nutrition and diet, and the outlook for improvements in the future.
Published by Food & Agriculture Org. on 08/20/2019
Book details: 114 pages.
The book demonstrates that reform policies_including privatization of land and the shift from collective to individual farming_have a significant impact on agricultural growth, rural incomes, and poverty alleviation. The analysis spans more than 40 years of agricultural and rural development in Azerbaijan, based on country-level statistical data and original farm and household surveys.
Published by Lexington Books on 02/15/2010
Book details: 187 pages.
Rural Reform in Post-Soviet Russia reviews change in agricultural and rural life since 1990 through historical, political, sociological, and anthropological investigation. The contributors' interest is not so much in agriculture itself but in agrarian issues such as the relationship between rural interests and changing Russian institutions, the economic and social organization of rural households, and the quality of life in rural families and villages.
Published by Woodrow Wilson Center Press on 03/20/2002
Book details: 430 pages.
This book analyzes the transition of Russia's agro-food sector from a centrally planned system to a market-oriented one. The chapters set out to explain the initial conditions of transition, describe the measures undertaken, survey the current situation, and offer perspectives on how best to continue with the reform. Hence, the book not only provides insights into Russia's food economy, it also gives very valuable information about the process of transition and the question: What next? Within the Russian context, the food economy is of special importance, due to the relatively high share it represents in the economy and its importance for employment. Furthermore, the privatization and the restructuring of the country's agro-food sector is one of the most controversial issues in the ongoing domestic political debate about the reform process. Russia is also important in that its reintegration into the world economy is at stake. Russia's Agro-Food Sector: Towards Truly Functioning Markets should increase the understanding of the issues causing the cumbersome implementation of reform measures and, in so doing, might provide scholars and policymakers with advice on how to improve the transition process. In fact, one of the most important lessons from the book is that markets will continue to malfunction as long as institutions are not functioning properly.
Published by Springer Science & Business Media on 12/06/2012
Book details: 541 pages.
The vast majority of the world's poorest households depend on farming for their livelihood. During the 1960s and 1970s, most developing countries imposed pro-urban and anti-agricultural policies, while many high-income countries restricted agricultural imports and subsidized their farmers. Both sets of policies inhibited economic growth and poverty alleviation in developing countries. Although progress has been made over the past two decades to reduce those policy biases, many trade- and welfare-reducing price distortions remain between agriculture and other sectors as well as within the agricultural sector of both rich and poor countries. Comprehensive empirical studies of the disarray in world agricultural markets first appeared approximately 20 years ago. Since then the OECD has provided estimates each year of market distortions in high-income countries, but there has been no comparable estimates for the world's developing countries. This volume is the first in a series (other volumes cover Africa, Asia, and Latin America) that not only fill that void for recent years but extend the estimates in a consistent and comparable way back in time--and provide analytical narratives for scores of countries that shed light on the evolving nature and extent of policy interventions over the past half-century. 'Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Europe's Transition Economies' provides an overview of the evolution of distortions to agricultural incentives caused by price and trade policies in the economies of Eastern Europe and Central Asia that are transitioning away from central planning. The book includes country and subregional studies of the ten transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe that joined the European Union in 2004 or 2007, of seven other large member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, and of Turkey. Together these countries comprise over 90 percent of the Europe and Central Asia region's population and GDP. Sectoral, trade, and exchange rate policies in the region have changed greatly since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, but price distortions remain. The new empirical indicators in these country studies provide a strong evidence-based foundation for evaluating policy options in the years ahead.
Published by World Bank Publications on 06/05/2008
Book details: 408 pages.
This bibliography is the only source for citations to North American scholarship on Eastern and Central Europe, the Balkans, the Baltic States, and the former Soviet Union.
Published by M.E. Sharpe on 08/20/1999
Book details: 701 pages.
In the past fifteen years, most countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States have shifted from predominantly collective to more individualized agriculture. These years also have witnessed the largest fall in agricultural production, yields, and rural employment on record, while the deterioration and dissolution of collective and state farms have been accompanied by a significant drop in rural public services. Land Reform and Farm Restructuring provides a structured and comparative review of important aspects of land reform and documents important differences in policies between countries to examine why the reforms have not yet lived up to their potential. It is based on data from farm and household surveys and interviews conducted in 2003 and 2004. Case studies from Bulgaria, Moldova, Azerbaijan, and Kazakhstan - countries that have had particular difficulties in land reform, farm restructuring, farm performance, or rural poverty - each highlight a central conundrum about land reform and farm restructuring. The paper concludes with some implications for policy.
Published by World Bank Publications on 01/01/2007
Book details: 87 pages.
The International Bibliographies of the Social Sciences have been renowned for their international coverage and rigorous selection procedures for nearly 50 years. Arranged by topic and indexed by author, subject and place-name, each bibliography lists and
Published by Psychology Press on 12/07/2000
Book details: 654 pages.
Agricultural Finance and Credit Infrastructure in Transition Economies Focus on South Eastern Europe - Proceedings of OECD Expert Meeting, Portoroz, Slovenia, May 2001
- What has been achieved in rural finance and institutional reform during more than a decade of transition and what challenges remain? - What are the special needs of South Eastern European countries to attract agricultural credit and finance to ...
Published by OECD Publishing on 09/24/2001
Book details: 332 pages.
By 1999, Russia's economy was growing at almost 7% per year, and by 2008 reached 11th place in the world GDP rankings. Russia is now the world's second largest producer and exporter of oil, the largest producer and exporter of natural gas, and as a result has the third largest stock of foreign exchange reserves in the world, behind only China and Japan. But while this impressive economic growth has raised the average standard of living and put a number of wealthy Russians on the Forbes billionaires list, it has failed to solve the country's deep economic and social problems inherited from the Soviet times. Russia continues to suffer from a distorted economic structure, with its low labor productivity, heavy reliance on natural resource extraction, low life expectancy, high income inequality, and weak institutions. While a voluminous amount of literature has studied various individual aspects of the Russian economy, in the West there has been no comprehensive and systematic analysis of the socialist legacies, the current state, and future prospects of the Russian economy gathered in one book. The Oxford Handbook of the Russian Economy fills this gap by offering a broad range of topics written by the best Western and Russian scholars of the Russian economy. While the book's focus is the current state of the Russian economy, the first part of the book also addresses the legacy of the Soviet command economy and offers an analysis of institutional aspects of Russia's economic development over the last decade. The second part covers the most important sectors of the economy. The third part examines the economic challenges created by the gigantic magnitude of regional, geographic, ethnic, religious and linguistic diversity of Russia. The fourth part covers various social issues, including health, education, and demographic challenges. It will also examine broad policy challenges, including the tax system, rule of law, as well as corruption and the underground economy. Michael Alexeev and Shlomo Weber provide for the first time in one volume a complete, well-rounded, and essential look at the complex, emerging Russian economy.
Published by Oxford University Press on 06/04/2013
Book details: 864 pages.