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HIV/AIDS in Southeastern Europe: Case Studies from Bulgaria, Croatia, and Romania
The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of the AIDS epidemics in Bulgaria, Croatia, and Romania, to evaluate the approaches and strategies currently being used in each country, and to make recommendations both for government strategies and for the Bank's current and potential future involvement in relation to these strategies. The paper is divided into three sections: 1) an overview of recent regional perspectives; 2) a situation analysis and evaluation for each country including current strategies and implementation arrangements, and 3) a discussion of potential actions by the Bank. The following approaches were used to complete the study: (i) Collecting data and documents on the current state of the AIDS epidemic in the ECC05 countries (Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania). Information was obtained from UNAIDS, national AIDS committees and commissions (including UN Thematic Groups), and reviews of published literature. This report draws heavily on information produced in conjunction with Rapid Assessment Reports and the June 6-8, 2002, conference on HIV/AIDS in Southeastern Europe, held in Bucharest, Romania. (ii) Reviewing each of the various government and UN-related strategies that are already in place to deal with the epidemics in terms of both prevention and treatment. (iii) Assessing which national and international organizations (Non-governmental Organizations [NGOs], UN Organizations, European Union, etc.) are involved in which aspects of prevention, treatment, or advocacy related to HIV/AIDS, and the extent to which these activities are integrated into the national government strategies. (iv) Visiting each of the countries twice to interview key informants, People With AIDS (PWAs), target group members, government officials, and UN agency field staff (April-June, 2002). (v) Highlighting those components and activities of current or previous World Bank projects related to HIV/AIDS and the relationship of this activity to the government s

21st Century Global Health Diplomacy
Global health diplomacy begins with a recognition that the most effective international health interventions are carried out with sensitivity to historical, political, social, economic, and cultural differences. It focuses on the interplay of glob