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Bioprocessing of Renewable Resources to Commodity Bioproducts

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This book provides the vision of a successful biorefinery—the lignocelluloic biomass needs to be efficiently converted to its constituent monomers, comprising mainly of sugars such as glucose, xylose, mannose and arabinose. Accordingly, the first part of the book deals with aspects crucial for the pretreatment and hydrolysis of biomass to give sugars in high yield, as well as the general aspects of bioprocessing technologies which will enable the development of biorefineries through inputs of metabolic engineering, fermentation, downstream processing and formulation. The second part of the book gives the current status and future directions of the biological processes for production of ethanol (a biofuel as well as an important commodity raw material), solvents (butanol, isobutanol, butanediols, propanediols), organic acids (lactic acid, 3-hydroxy propionic acid, fumaric acid, succinic acid and adipic acid), and amino acid (glutamic acid). The commercial production of some of these commodity bioproducts in the near future will have a far reaching effect in realizing our goal of sustainable conversion of these renewable resources and realizing the concept of biorefinery. Suitable for researchers, practitioners, graduate students and consultants in biochemical/ bioprocess engineering, industrial microbiology, bioprocess technology, metabolic engineering, environmental science and energy, the book offers: Exemplifies the application of metabolic engineering approaches for development of microbial cell factories Provides a unique perspective to the industry about the scientific problems and their possible solutions in making a bioprocess work for commercial production of commodity bioproducts Discusses the processing of renewable resources, such as plant biomass, for  mass production of commodity chemicals and liquid fuels to meet our ever- increasing demands Encourages sustainable green technologies for the utilization of renewable resources Offers timely solutions to help address the energy problem as non-renewable fossil oil will soon be unavailable
Category: Technology. ISBN: 9781118175835

Monomers, Polymers and Composites from Renewable Resources

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The progressive dwindling of fossil resources, coupled with the drastic increase in oil prices, have sparked a feverish activity in search of alternatives based on renewable resources for the production of energy. Given the predominance of petroleum- and carbon-based chemistry for the manufacture of organic chemical commodities, a similar preoccupation has recently generated numerous initiatives aimed at replacing these fossil sources with renewable counterparts. In particular, major efforts are being conducted in the field of polymer science and technology to prepare macromolecular materials based on renewable resources. The concept of the bio-refinery, viz. the rational exploitation of the vegetable biomass in terms of the separation of its components and their utilisation as such, or after suitable chemical modifications, is thus gaining momentum and considerable financial backing from both the public and private sectors. This collection of chapters, each one written by internationally recognised experts in the corresponding field, covers in a comprehensive fashion all the major aspects related to the synthesis, characterization and properties of macromolecular materials prepared using renewable resources as such, or after appropriate modifications. Thus, monomers such as terpenes and furans, oligomers like rosin and tannins, and polymers ranging from cellulose to proteins and including macromolecules synthesized by microbes, are discussed with the purpose of showing the extraordinary variety of materials that can be prepared from their intelligent exploitation. Particular emphasis has been placed on recent advances and imminent perspectives, given the incessantly growing interest that this area is experiencing in both the scientific and technological realms. Discusses bio-refining with explicit application to materials Replete with examples of applications of the concept of sustainable development Presents an impressive variety of novel macromolecular materials
Category: Technology. ISBN: 9780080453163

Renewable Energy Applications for Freshwater Production

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Worldwide, many regions have a great potential to cover part of their pressing water needs by renewable energy powered water treatment processes using either thermal or membrane based technologies. Not only arid and semiarid regions are increasingly suffering from water shortage but also many other regions face a limitation of freshwater resources either by increasing contamination of surface water bodies or groundwater resources unsuitable for drinking and irrigation purposes either due to their high grade of mineralization or their contents of toxic components. In many areas without centralized water supply, treatment techniques using locally available renewable energy resources such as wind, solar and geothermal can provide an economical, social and environmentally sustainable option for clean water production from seawater and from highly mineralized or otherwise unsuitable ground- and surface water. This book provides an overview on possible cost-efficient techniques and application opportunities for different scales and shows why the implementation of these technologies faces numerous technological, economic and policy barriers and provides suggestions how they can be overcome. It serves as a synoptic compendium of the fundamentals of freshwater production using renewable energies, applicable to all types of water, ranging from brackish to marine water and also including industrial and communal residual water. The book is aimed at professionals, academics and decision makers worldwide, working in the areas of water resources, water supply,land planning, energy planning, greenhouse gases emission mitigation and rural development.
Category: Business. ISBN: 9780415620895

Energy, Resources and Welfare

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Bent Srensen, one of the world's leading experts in the field of renewable energy systems, explores the current hurdles to the universal adoption of renewable energy sources and proposes solutions to the current situation in this new inspiring work. He discusses the social, political and economic issues that make sustainability seem like such an attainable goal, and explores the ways through which change can be achieved without loss of welfare. Even though the author has written several scientific monographs covering the technical issues behind the energy and social transitions mentioned in this book, and bases his conclusions on solid facts and analysis, Srensen avoids specialist jargon in this text. He therefore addresses scientists and engineers directly involved in sustainable technologies, as well as energy planners and decision makers in industry and government, and also those interested in the direction in which our societies are moving. This book can be a good basis for discussions and debate, whether in academic or in political circles, and may even be used as complementary reading for students in the field of energy generation, implementation, planning, management, markets and policy. One of the world's leading experts in renewable energy systems looks into economic, social and political factors that influence the current state of renewable energy implementation in the world. Srensen examines the reasons why reaching 100% renewable and sustainable energy sources might seem like an unattainable goal, and proposes alternative solutions that would allow the world to proceed towards energy sustainability without losing welfare.
Category: Technology. ISBN: 9780128032183

Variable Renewable Energy and the Electricity Grid

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The integration of renewable energy resources into the electricity grid presents an important challenge. This book provides a review and analysis of the technical and policy options available for managing variable energy resources such as wind and solar power. As well as being of value to government and industry policy-makers and planners, the volume alsoprovides a single source for scientists and engineers of the technical knowledge gained during the 4-year RenewElec (renewable electricity) project at Carnegie Mellon University, the University of Vermont, Vermont Law School, and the Van Ness Feldman environmental law firm. The first part of the book discusses the options for large scale integration of variable electric power generation, including issues of predictability, variability, and efficiency. The second part presents the scientific findings of the project. In the final part, the authors undertake a critical review of major quantitative regional and national wind integration studies in the United States. Based on comparisons among these studies, they suggest areas where improvements in methods are warranted in future studies, areas where additional research is needed to facilitate future improvements in wind integration studies and how the research can be put into practice.
Category: Technology. ISBN: 9780415733014

Critical Reflections on Nuclear and Renewable Energy

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The Fukushima nuclear incident made people ponder and question nuclear safety again, resulting in decisions by certain countries to phase out nuclear power completely. Is this the right decision? Are there better ways to deal with this important issue of the 21th century?   The book analyses the pros and cons of a spectrum of energies, ranging from petroleum, coal, gas to water, solar and wind energies as well as nuclear energy in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear incident in 2011. It maintains that we should look at nuclear energy from a rational point of view instead of being influenced by emotions or politicians’ arguments.  The book also examines policies that concern science and technology, energy resources, environmental protection and occupational safety, emphasizing the need to deepen the general populace’s understanding of the concept of reliability.
Category: Science. ISBN: 9781118773420

The Science of Renewable Energy, Second Edition

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Latest Edition Explores Fresh, New Alternatives to Fossil Fuels The Science of Renewable Energy, Second Edition takes a look at ways to produce sustainable and reliable energy sources and presents practical examples along with scientific methods, models, observations, and tools. Developed by esteemed author Frank R. Spellman, this book includes input from industry experts offering guidance and direction on obtaining self-replenishing energy from natural processes. The book focuses on the various forms of renewable energy derived from natural processes that are constantly replenished: solar energy, wind energy, ocean energy, wave energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy, biomass energy, hydropower energy, biofuels, and hydrogen fuel cells. New in the Second Edition: Updates each chapter with current information including the latest innovations Elaborates on energy basics Adds important energy parameters dealing with both fossil fuel supplies and renewable resources (energy units as they apply to fossil fuel energy and renewable energy) Expands each chapter to include both the pros and cons of renewable energy production and use The Science of Renewable Energy, Second Edition focuses on the production of clean and efficient energy sources and serves as a reference to undergraduates in renewable energy courses as well as non-specialists within the energy industries.
Category: Technology. ISBN: 9781498760478

Nanophysics of Solar and Renewable Energy

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This easy accessible textbook provides an overview of solar to electric energy conversion, followed by a detailed look at one aspect, namely photovoltaics, including the underlying principles and fabrication methods. Ed Wolf, an experienced author and teacher, reviews such green technologies as solar-heated-steam power, hydrogen, and thermoelectric generation, as well as nuclear fusion. Throughout the book, carefully chosen, up-to-date examples are used to illustrate important concepts and research tools. The opening chapters give a broad and exhaustive survey of long term energy resources, reviewing current and potential types of solar driven energy sources. The core part of the text on solar energy conversion discusses different concepts for generating electric power, followed by a profound presentation of the underlying semiconductor physics and rounded off by a look at efficiency and third-generation concepts. The concluding section offers a rough analysis of the economics relevant to the large-scale adoption of photovoltaic conversion with a discussion of such issues as durability, manufacturability and cost, as well as the importance of storage. The book is self-contained so as to be suitable for students with introductory calculus-based courses in physics, chemistry, or engineering. It introduces concepts in quantum mechanics, atomic and molecular physics, plus the solid state and semiconductor junction physics needed to attain a quantitative understanding of the current status of this field. With its comments on economic aspects, it is also a useful tool for those readers interested in a career in alternative energy.
Category: Technology. ISBN: 9783527410521

Transmission Expansion for Renewable Energy Scale-Up

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In their efforts to increase the share of renewable in electricity grids to reducing emissions or increasing energy diversity, developed and developing countries are finding that a considerable scale-up of investments in transmission infrastructures will be necessary to achieve their goals. Renewable energy resources such as wind, solar, and hydro power, tend to be sited far from existing electricity grids and consumption centers. Achieving desired supply levels from these sources requires that networks be expanded to reach many sites and to ensuring the different supply variation patterns of renewable are combined with existing sources in the grid to ensure the constantly varying demand for electricity is always met.Expanding networks will be crucial to achieve renewable energy objectives efficiency and effectively. Efficiency is important to ensure renewable energy goals are achieved at the lowest cost while considering needed investment in transmission. Besides the cost of transmission, which is often worth, transmission needs be planned and built in such a way that the many sites being taped are connected in a timely fashion. The challenges of ensuring efficiency and efficacy in developing transmission for renewable become surmountable if the right planning and regulatory framework for expanding transmission are put in place. This report reviews emerging approaches being undertaken by transmission utilities and regulators to solve to cope with these challenges of expanding transmission for renewable energy scale-up. Proactively planning and regulating transmission networks are emerging as the premier approach to ensure that transmission networks are expanded efficiently and effectively. Linking planning with clear and stable cost-recovery regulation can also help bringing the private sector to complement the considerable investment needs in transmission. Based on the evolving experience and on established theory and practice on transmission regulation, the report also proposes some principles that could be useful to implement specific rules for the planning, development, and pricing of transmission networks.
Category: Business. ISBN: 9780821395981

Food And Energy Resources

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Food and Energy Resources provides an understanding of the influence of energy, land, and water resources on food production. Future supplies of energy resources will have a major impact on the ability of humans to provide themselves with food. A better understanding of these issues will help society make sound choices and enable government leaders to develop and organize the necessary programs for the effective use of energy and food resources. The book begins with a discussion of the energy flow in the food system. This is followed by chapters that examine alternatives for the use of the external solar energy; the role of energy in world agriculture and food supply; the energy, land, and labor inputs in several major crop systems in northeastern China; and energy and food relationships in developing countries. Subsequent chapters deal with issues such as the use of renewable energy sources and the extent to which agricultural resources are used to produce food or fuel. This book will provide engineers, economists, agriculturists, geographers, ecologists, nutritionists, sociologists, and natural resource specialists a perspective that will help solve the problem of providing food for people while protecting natural resources.
Category: Technology. ISBN: 9780125565608
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