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Architectural and Operating System Support for Virtual Memory

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This book provides computer engineers, academic researchers, new graduate students, and seasoned practitioners an end-to-end overview of virtual memory. We begin with a recap of foundational concepts and discuss not only state-of-the-art virtual memory hardware and software support available today, but also emerging research trends in this space. The span of topics covers processor microarchitecture, memory systems, operating system design, and memory allocation. We show how efficient virtual memory implementations hinge on careful hardware and software cooperation, and we discuss new research directions aimed at addressing emerging problems in this space. Virtual memory is a classic computer science abstraction and one of the pillars of the computing revolution. It has long enabled hardware flexibility, software portability, and overall better security, to name just a few of its powerful benefits. Nearly all user-level programs today take for granted that they will have been freed from the burden of physical memory management by the hardware, the operating system, device drivers, and system libraries. However, despite its ubiquity in systems ranging from warehouse-scale datacenters to embedded Internet of Things (IoT) devices, the overheads of virtual memory are becoming a critical performance bottleneck today. Virtual memory architectures designed for individual CPUs or even individual cores are in many cases struggling to scale up and scale out to today's systems which now increasingly include exotic hardware accelerators (such as GPUs, FPGAs, or DSPs) and emerging memory technologies (such as non-volatile memory), and which run increasingly intensive workloads (such as virtualized and/or "big data" applications). As such, many of the fundamental abstractions and implementation approaches for virtual memory are being augmented, extended, or entirely rebuilt in order to ensure that virtual memory remains viable and performant in the years to come.
Category: Technology. ISBN: 9781627059336

Design and Implementation of the MTX Operating System

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This course-tested textbook describes the design and implementation of operating systems, and applies it to the MTX operating system, a Unix-like system designed for Intel x86 based PCs. Written in an evolutional style, theoretical and practical aspects of operating systems are presented as the design and implementation of a complete operating system is demonstrated. Throughout the text, complete source code and working sample systems are used to exhibit the techniques discussed. The book contains many new materials on the design and use of parallel algorithms in SMP. Complete coverage on booting an operating system is included, as well as, extending the process model to implement threads support in the MTX kernel, an init program for system startup and a sh program for executing user commands. Intended for technically orientedoperating systemscourses that emphasize both theory and practice, the book is also suitable for self-study.
Category: Computers. ISBN: 9783319175744

The Design and Implementation of the FreeBSD Operating System

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As in earlier Addison-Wesley books on the UNIX-based BSD operating system, Kirk McKusick and George Neville-Neil deliver here the most comprehensive, up-to-date, and authoritative technical information on the internal structure of open source FreeBSD. Readers involved in technical and sales support can learn the capabilities and limitations of the system; applications developers can learn effectively and efficiently how to interface to the system; system administrators can learn how to maintain, tune, and configure the system; and systems programmers can learn how to extend, enhance, and interface to the system. The authors provide a concise overview of FreeBSD's design and implementation. Then, while explaining key design decisions, they detail the concepts, data structures, and algorithms used in implementing the systems facilities. As a result, readers can use this book as both a practical reference and an in-depth study of a contemporary, portable, open source operating system. This book: Details the many performance improvements in the virtual memory system Describes the new symmetric multiprocessor support Includes new sections on threads and their scheduling Introduces the new jail facility to ease the hosting of multiple domains Updates information on networking and interprocess communication Already widely used for Internet services and firewalls, high-availability servers, and general timesharing systems, the lean quality of FreeBSD also suits the growing area of embedded systems. Unlike Linux, FreeBSD does not require users to publicize any changes they make to the source code.
Category: Computers. ISBN: 9780201702453

Compilers and Operating Systems for Low Power

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Compilers and Operating Systems for Low Power focuses on both application-level compiler directed energy optimization and low-power operating systems. Chapters have been written exclusively for this volume by several of the leading researchers and application developers active in the field. The first six chapters focus on low energy operating systems, or more in general, energy-aware middleware services. The next five chapters are centered on compilation and code optimization. Finally, the last chapter takes a more general viewpoint on mobile computing. The material demonstrates the state-of-the-art work and proves that to obtain the best energy/performance characteristics, compilers, system software, and architecture must work together. The relationship between energy-aware middleware and wireless microsensors, mobile computing and other wireless applications are covered. This work will be of interest to researchers in the areas of low-power computing, embedded systems, compiler optimizations, and operating systems.
Category: Technology. ISBN: 9781402075735

Instrumentation for the Operating Room - E-Book

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With more than 1,000 photographs of surgical instruments and instrument tips in the book and online, Instrumentation for the Operating Room: A Photographic Manual, 8th Edition, shows more illustrations than any other manual. Instruments are organized by surgical specialty, beginning with basic sets and progressing to more advanced sets. Instructions on preparation, sterilization, and setup, as well as clear explanations for common surgical procedures can be found throughout the book. Within each chapter, instruments are commonly featured individually and as parts of sets, often showing close-up, individual tips. Written by an experienced perioperative nurse, Shirley Tighe, this edition includes new photographs of the operating room and of robotic and micro-surgical instruments, plus a companion Evolve website with additional photographs, flashcards, and review questions. Over 800 photographs of both individual and sets of instruments , including whole instruments and instrument tips, help in distinguishing between similar types. Instrument Preparation for Surgery unit discusses the importance of proper instrument handling and sterilization, including the proper placement within sterilization trays. A logical organization covers instruments by surgical procedures, beginning with simpler surgeries and building to more complex, specialized instruments and setups. Entire units focus on female reproductive surgery and pediatric surgery , both of which are key areas not well covered in other books. Excellent quality photographs on a consistent background enhance the detail and true color of the instruments. Spiral-bound format allows the book to lay flat for easier access while on the job. 75 new photographs show individual instruments and sets of instruments, including tips. Full operating room photographs are included in Operating Room Suite/Basic Laparotomy chapter. More than 25 new photographs of instrument tips are included in The da Vinci Surgical System and EndoWrist Instruments (Robotic Instruments) chapter. Before-and-after radiograph images show a total ankle prosthesis, spinal rodding, and femoral artery blockage. Definitions, procedures, and possible equipment needed for a procedure are included in almost every chapter. A companion Evolve website features over 200 photographs of less-common instruments; flashcards; and more than 280 review questions.
Category: Medicine. ISBN: 9780323077392

The Design and Implementation of the 4.4 BSD Operating System (paperback)

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This is the eBook version of the printed book. If the print book includes a CD-ROM, this content is not included within the eBook version. This book describes the design and implementation of the BSD operating system--previously known as the Berkeley version of UNIX. Today, BSD is found in nearly every variant of UNIX, and is widely used for Internet services and firewalls, timesharing, and multiprocessing systems. Readers involved in technical and sales support can learn the capabilities and limitations of the system; applications developers can learn effectively and efficiently how to interface to the system; systems programmers can learn how to maintain, tune, and extend the system. Written from the unique perspective of the system's architects, this book delivers the most comprehensive, up-to-date, and authoritative technical information on the internal structure of the latest BSD system. As in the previous book on 4.3BSD (with Samuel Leffler), the authors first update the history and goals of the BSD system. Next they provide a coherent overview of its design and implementation. Then, while explaining key design decisions, they detail the concepts, data structures, and algorithms used in implementing the system's facilities. As an in-depth study of a contemporary, portable operating system, or as a practical reference, readers will appreciate the wealth of insight and guidance contained in this book. Highlights of the book: Details major changes in process and memory management Describes the new extensible and stackable filesystem interface Includes an invaluable chapter on the new network filesystem Updates information on networking and interprocess communication
Category: Computers. ISBN: 9780132317924

Operating and Planning Electricity Grids with Variable Renewable Generation

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The paper ‘Challenges and Approaches to Electricity Grids Operations and Planning with Increased Amounts of Variable Renewable Generation: Emerging Lessons from Selected Operational Experiences and Desktop Studies’ focuses on analyzing the impacts of variable renewable energy on the operation and planning of the the power system (mostly, generation system). It is aimed at informing stakeholders in power utilities, regulatory bodies and other relevant audiences, on the fundamentals of technical challenges and approaches to operate electricity grids with renewable energy. It covers renewable energy as a whole, but in particular, focusses on wind and solar energy. It also presents three case studies of countries, including China, Gemany and Spain. The total worldwide installed capacity of wind and solar projects is growing rapidly, and several countries are noticing increased penetrations of wind and solar in their electricity generation mix. In addition to operating experience being gained from adding wind and solar capacity, several grid integration studies have been performed that assess potential grid and operating impacts from adding higher amounts of wind and solar capacity. Perhaps just as important, the electric power industry and those that conduct research on grid integration have not found a maximum level of variable generation that can be reliably incorporated, and it is clear that it is as much an economic question (how much cost in additional reserves or grid impacts is acceptable) as a technical question regarding grid operators’ ability to adapt to the new challenges. In addition, while their contributions to capacity or “firm” power and associated costs are different from those of conventional power sources, variable renewable generation technologies can contribute to long-term system adequacy and security. The paper describes on the contribution of variable power sources to long-term supply adequacy requirements, i.e. how much sources like wind and solar power contribute to “firm supply” in a system. It also describes methods to find out to what extent they contribute and at what cost. It also aims at providing indicative answers to how costs to system operations be determined and when and how an integration study be done to estimate the short-term reserve costs of renewable energy.The concepts in the paper should be of interest, especially to grid planers. For grid operators, the paper summarizes a menu of strategies that the operational practices and desktop research tell about managing wind in a system at different levels of penetration. It also elucidates available strategies, amongst other crucial questions of operational impacts and challenges that operators need to be aware of, to integrate variable generation.
Category: Business. ISBN: 9780821397343

Mechanisms for Reliable Distributed Real-Time Operating Systems

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Mechanisms for Reliable Distributed Real-Time Operating Systems: The Alpha Kernel deals with the Alpha kernel, a set of mechanisms that support the construction of reliable, modular, decentralized operating systems for real-time control applications. An initial snapshot of the kernel design and implementation is provided. Comprised of seven chapters, this volume begins with a background on the Alpha operating system kernel and its implementation, followed by a description of the programming abstractions created for the Alpha kernel. The third chapter defines the client interface provided by the kernel in support of the given programming abstractions, while the fourth chapter focuses on the functional design of the kernel. The hardware on which the kernel was constructed, as well as the implications of this hardware on the design and implementation of the kernel, is also examined. The final chapter compares Alpha with other relevant operating systems such as Hydra, Cronus, Eden, Argus, Accent, and Locus. This book will appeal to computer scientists, systems designers, and undergraduate and graduate students of computer science.
Category: Computers. ISBN: 9780125216906

Operating Instructions

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With the same brilliant combination of humor and warmth she brought tobestseller Bird by Bird , Anne Lamott gives us a smart, funny, and comforting chronicle of single motherhood. It's not like she's the only woman to ever have a baby. At thirty-five. On her own. But Anne Lamott makes it all fresh in her now-classic account of how she and her son and numerous friends and neighbors and some strangers survived and thrived in that all important first year. From finding out that her baby is a boy (and getting used to the idea) to finding out that her best friend and greatest supporter Pam will die of cancer (and not getting used to that idea), with a generous amount of wit and faith (but very little piousness), Lamott narrates the great and small events that make up a woman's life. "Lamott has a conversational style that perfectly conveys her friendly, self-depricating humor." -- Los Angeles Times Book Review "Lamott is a wonderfully lithe writer .... Anyone who has ever had a hard time facing a perfectly ordinary day will identify." -- Chicago Tribune
Category: Family & Relationships. ISBN: 9781400079094

Operating Globally

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Fast track route to mastering global operations Covers the key areas of international marketing and distribution, logistics, import/export compliance and government regulations Examples and lessons from some of the world's most successful businesses, including Nortel Networks, Terranova Forest Products and Ampro Electronics, and ideas from the smartest thinkers, including Adrian Wooldridge, Christopher Bartlett, Sumantra Ghoshal and John Micklethwait. Includes a glossary of key concepts and a comprehensive resources guide
Category: Business. ISBN: 9781841122281
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