Gaussian Process Regression Analysis for Functional Data presents nonparametric statistical methods for functional regression analysis, specifically the methods based on a Gaussian process prior in a functional space. The authors focus on problems involving functional response variables and mixed covariates of functional and scalar variables.Covering the basics of Gaussian process regression, the first several chapters discuss functional data analysis, theoretical aspects based on the asymptotic properties of Gaussian process regression models, and new methodological developments for high dimensional data and variable selection. The remainder of the text explores advanced topics of functional regression analysis, including novel nonparametric statistical methods for curve prediction, curve clustering, functional ANOVA, and functional regression analysis of batch data, repeated curves, and non-Gaussian data.Many flexible models based on Gaussian processes provide efficient ways of model learning, interpreting model structure, and carrying out inference, particularly when dealing with large dimensional functional data. This book shows how to use these Gaussian process regression models in the analysis of functional data. Some MATLAB® and C codes are available on the first author’s website.
Published by: Chapman and Hall/CRC | Publication date: 07/01/2011Kindle book details: Kindle Edition, 216 pages
Gaussian Markov Random Fields: Theory and Applications (Chapman & Hall/CRC Monographs on Statistics & Applied Probability)
Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) models are most widely used in spatial statistics - a very active area of research in which few up-to-date reference works are available. This is the first book on the subject that provides a unified framework of GMRFs with particular emphasis on the computational aspects. This book includes extensive case-studies and, online, a c-library for fast and exact simulation. With chapters contributed by leading researchers in the field, this volume is essential reading for statisticians working in spatial theory and its applications, as well as quantitative researchers in a wide range of science fields where spatial data analysis is important.
Published by: Chapman and Hall/CRC | Publication date: 02/18/2005Kindle book details: Kindle Edition, 280 pages
The principal focus here is on autoregressive moving average models and analogous random fields, with probabilistic and statistical questions also being discussed. The book contrasts Gaussian models with noncausal or noninvertible (nonminimum phase) non-Gaussian models and deals with problems of prediction and estimation. New results for nonminimum phase non-Gaussian processes are exposited and open questions are noted. Intended as a text for gradutes in statistics, mathematics, engineering, the natural sciences and economics, the only recommendation is an initial background in probability theory and statistics. Notes on background, history and open problems are given at the end of the book.
Published by: Springer | Publication date: 09/27/2012Kindle book details: Kindle Edition, 247 pages
Unsupervised Machine Learning in Python: Master Data Science and Machine Learning with Cluster Analysis, Gaussian Mixture Models, and Principal Components Analysis
In a real-world environment, you can imagine that a robot or an artificial intelligence won’t always have access to the optimal answer, or maybe there isn’t an optimal correct answer. You’d want that robot to be able to explore the world on its own, and learn things just by looking for patterns.Think about the large amounts of data being collected today, by the likes of the NSA, Google, and other organizations. No human could possibly sift through all that data manually. It was reported recently in the Washington Post and Wall Street Journal that the National Security Agency collects so much surveillance data, it is no longer effective.Could automated pattern discovery solve this problem?Do you ever wonder how we get the data that we use in our supervised machine learning algorithms?Kaggle always seems to provide us with a nice CSV, complete with Xs and corresponding Ys.If you haven’t been involved in acquiring data yourself, you might not have thought about this, but someone has to make this data!A lot of the time this involves manual labor. Sometimes, you don’t have access to the correct information or it is infeasible or costly to acquire.You still want to have some idea of the structure of the data.This is where unsupervised machine learning comes into play.In this book we are first going to talk about clustering. This is where instead of training on labels, we try to create our own labels. We’ll do this by grouping together data that looks alike.The 2 methods of clustering we’ll talk about: k-means clustering and hierarchical clustering.Next, because in machine learning we like to talk about probability distributions, we’ll go into Gaussian mixture models and kernel density estimation, where we talk about how to learn the probability distribution of a set of data.One interesting fact is that under certain conditions, Gaussian mixture models and k-means clustering are exactly the same! We’ll prove how this is the case.Lastly, we’ll look at the theory behind principal components analysis or PCA. PCA has many useful applications: visualization, dimensionality reduction, denoising, and de-correlation. You will see how it allows us to take a different perspective on latent variables, which first appear when we talk about k-means clustering and GMMs.All the algorithms we’ll talk about in this course are staples in machine learning and data science, so if you want to know how to automatically find patterns in your data with data mining and pattern extraction, without needing someone to put in manual work to label that data, then this book is for you.All of the materials required to follow along in this book are free: You just need to able to download and install Python, Numpy, Scipy, Matplotlib, and Sci-kit Learn.
Publication date: 05/22/2016Kindle book details: Kindle Edition, 38 pages
Statistical Rethinking: A Bayesian Course with Examples in R and Stan (Chapman & Hall/CRC Texts in Statistical Science)
Statistical Rethinking: A Bayesian Course with Examples in R and Stan builds readers’ knowledge of and confidence in statistical modeling. Reflecting the need for even minor programming in today’s model-based statistics, the book pushes readers to perform step-by-step calculations that are usually automated. This unique computational approach ensures that readers understand enough of the details to make reasonable choices and interpretations in their own modeling work.The text presents generalized linear multilevel models from a Bayesian perspective, relying on a simple logical interpretation of Bayesian probability and maximum entropy. It covers from the basics of regression to multilevel models. The author also discusses measurement error, missing data, and Gaussian process models for spatial and network autocorrelation.By using complete R code examples throughout, this book provides a practical foundation for performing statistical inference. Designed for both PhD students and seasoned professionals in the natural and social sciences, it prepares them for more advanced or specialized statistical modeling. Web ResourceThe book is accompanied by an R package (rethinking) that is available on the author’s website and GitHub. The two core functions (map and map2stan) of this package allow a variety of statistical models to be constructed from standard model formulas.
Published by: Chapman and Hall/CRC | Publication date: 01/03/2018Kindle book details: Kindle Edition, 487 pages
Stable Non-Gaussian Random Processes: Stochastic Models with Infinite Variance (Stochastic Modeling Series)
This book serves as a standard reference, making this area accessible not only to researchers in probability and statistics, but also to graduate students and practitioners. The book assumes only a first-year graduate course in probability. Each chapter begins with a brief overview and concludes with a wide range of exercises at varying levels of difficulty. The authors supply detailed hints for the more challenging problems, and cover many advances made in recent years.
Published by: Routledge | Publication date: 11/22/2017Kindle book details: Kindle Edition, 632 pages
Gaussian processes can be viewed as a far-reaching infinite-dimensional extension of classical normal random variables. Their theory presents a powerful range of tools for probabilistic modelling in various academic and technical domains such as Statistics, Forecasting, Finance, Information Transmission, Machine Learning - to mention just a few. The objective of these Briefs is to present a quick and condensed treatment of the core theory that a reader must understand in order to make his own independent contributions. The primary intended readership are PhD/Masters students and researchers working in pure or applied mathematics. The first chapters introduce essentials of the classical theory of Gaussian processes and measures with the core notions of reproducing kernel, integral representation, isoperimetric property, large deviation principle. The brevity being a priority for teaching and learning purposes, certain technical details and proofs are omitted. The later chapters touch important recent issues not sufficiently reflected in the literature, such as small deviations, expansions, and quantization of processes. In university teaching, one can build a one-semester advanced course upon these Briefs.
Published by: Springer | Publication date: 01/11/2012Kindle book details: Kindle Edition, 134 pages
A comprehensive introduction to machine learning that uses probabilistic models and inference as a unifying approach.Today's Web-enabled deluge of electronic data calls for automated methods of data analysis. Machine learning provides these, developing methods that can automatically detect patterns in data and then use the uncovered patterns to predict future data. This textbook offers a comprehensive and self-contained introduction to the field of machine learning, based on a unified, probabilistic approach.The coverage combines breadth and depth, offering necessary background material on such topics as probability, optimization, and linear algebra as well as discussion of recent developments in the field, including conditional random fields, L1 regularization, and deep learning. The book is written in an informal, accessible style, complete with pseudo-code for the most important algorithms. All topics are copiously illustrated with color images and worked examples drawn from such application domains as biology, text processing, computer vision, and robotics. Rather than providing a cookbook of different heuristic methods, the book stresses a principled model-based approach, often using the language of graphical models to specify models in a concise and intuitive way. Almost all the models described have been implemented in a MATLAB software package—PMTK (probabilistic modeling toolkit)—that is freely available online. The book is suitable for upper-level undergraduates with an introductory-level college math background and beginning graduate students.
Published by: The MIT Press | Publication date: 09/07/2012Kindle book details: Kindle Edition, 1104 pages
This superb text by David Bohm, formerly Princeton University and Emeritus Professor of Theoretical Physics at Birkbeck College, University of London, provides a formulation of the quantum theory in terms of qualitative and imaginative concepts that have evolved outside and beyond classical theory. Although it presents the main ideas of quantum theory essentially in nonmathematical terms, it follows these with a broad range of specific applications that are worked out in considerable mathematical detail. Addressed primarily to advanced undergraduate students, the text begins with a study of the physical formulation of the quantum theory, from its origin and early development through an analysis of wave vs. particle properties of matter. In Part II, Professor Bohm addresses the mathematical formulation of the quantum theory, examining wave functions, operators, Schrödinger's equation, fluctuations, correlations, and eigenfunctions.Part III takes up applications to simple systems and further extensions of quantum theory formulation, including matrix formulation and spin and angular momentum. Parts IV and V explore the methods of approximate solution of Schrödinger's equation and the theory of scattering. In Part VI, the process of measurement is examined along with the relationship between quantum and classical concepts.Throughout the text, Professor Bohm places strong emphasis on showing how the quantum theory can be developed in a natural way, starting from the previously existing classical theory and going step by step through the experimental facts and theoretical lines of reasoning which led to replacement of the classical theory by the quantum theory.
Published by: Dover Publications | Publication date: 04/25/2012Kindle book details: Kindle Edition, 672 pages
Designed for the applied practitioner, this book is a compact, entry-level guide to modeling and analyzing non-Gaussian and correlated data. Many practitioners work with data that fail the assumptions of the common linear regression models, necessitating more advanced modeling techniques. This Handbook presents clearly explained modeling options for such situations, along with extensive example data analyses. The book explains core models such as logistic regression, count regression, longitudinal regression, survival analysis, and structural equation modelling without relying on mathematical derivations. All data analyses are performed on real and publicly available data sets, which are revisited multiple times to show differing results using various modeling options. Common pitfalls, data issues, and interpretation of model results are also addressed. Programs in both R and SAS are made available for all results presented in the text so that readers can emulate and adapt analyses for their own data analysis needs.
Published by: Cambridge University Press | Publication date: 07/31/2017Kindle book details: Kindle Edition, 228 pages