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Guide to Data Structures

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This accessible and engaging textbook/guide provides a concise introduction to data structures and associated algorithms. Emphasis is placed on the fundamentals of data structures, enabling the reader to quickly learn the key concepts, and providing a strong foundation for later studies of more complex topics. The coverage includes discussions on stacks, queues, lists, (using both arrays and links), sorting, and elementary binary trees, heaps, and hashing. This content is also a natural continuation from the material provided in the separate Springer title Guide to Java by the same authors. Topics and features: reviews the preliminary concepts, and introduces stacks and queues using arrays, along with a discussion of array-based lists; examines linked lists, the implementation of stacks and queues using references, binary trees, a range of varied sorting techniques, heaps, and hashing; presents both primitive and generic data types in each chapter, and makes use of contour diagrams to illustrate object-oriented concepts; includes chapter summaries, and asks the reader questions to help them interact with the material; contains numerous examples and illustrations, and one or more complete program in every chapter; provides exercises at the end of each chapter, as well as solutions to selected exercises, and a glossary of important terms. This clearly-written work is an ideal classroom text for a second semester course in programming using the Java programming language, in preparation for a subsequent advanced course in data structures and algorithms. The book is also eminently suitable as a self-study guide in either academe or industry.

C# Data Structures and Algorithms

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A complete guide on using data structures and algorithms to write sophisticated C# codeAbout This BookLearn how to build reusable and maintainable code in C#.Delve into effective design and implementation techniques to meet your software requirementsExplore illustrations to present data structures and algorithms, as well as their analysis in a clear, visual manner. Who This Book Is ForThis book is for developers who would like to learn the Data Structures and Algorithms in C#. Basic C# programming knowledge would be an added advantage. What You Will LearnHow to use arrays and lists to get better results in complex scenariosImplement algorithms like the Tower of Hanoi on stacks of C# objectsBuild enhanced applications by using hashtables, dictionaries and setsMake a positive impact on efficiency of applications with tree traversalEffectively find the shortest path in the graphIn DetailData structures allow organizing data efficiently. They are critical to various problems and their suitable implementation can provide a complete solution that acts like reusable code. In this book, you will learn how to use various data structures while developing in the C# language as well as how to implement some of the most common algorithms used with such data structures. At the beginning, you will get to know arrays, lists, dictionaries, and sets together with real-world examples of your application. Then, you will learn how to create and use stacks and queues. In the following part of the book, the more complex data structures will be introduced, namely trees and graphs, together with some algorithms for searching the shortest path in a graph. We will also discuss how to organize the code in a manageable, consistent, and extendable way. By the end of the book, you will learn how to build components that are easy to understand, debug, and use in different applications.

Modeling and Valuation of Energy Structures

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Commodity markets present several challenges for quantitative modeling. These include high volatilities, small sample data sets, and physical, operational complexity. In addition, the set of traded products in commodity markets is more limited than in financial or equity markets, making value extraction through trading more difficult. These facts make it very easy for modeling efforts to run into serious problems, as many models are very sensitive to noise and hence can easily fail in practice. Modeling and Valuation of Energy Structures is a comprehensive guide to quantitative and statistical approaches that have been successfully employed in support of trading operations, reflecting the author's 17 years of experience as a front-office 'quant'. The major theme of the book is that simpler is usually better, a message that is drawn out through the reality of incomplete markets, small samples, and informational constraints. The necessary mathematical tools for understanding these issues are thoroughly developed, with many techniques (analytical, econometric, and numerical) collected in a single volume for the first time. A particular emphasis is placed on the central role that the underlying market resolution plays in valuation. Examples are provided to illustrate that robust, approximate valuations are to be preferred to overly ambitious attempts at detailed qualitative modeling.

Language, Sex and Social Structure

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This book offers an innovative way of doing critical discourse analysis that focuses on the performatively produced concepts and social structures that support oppressive attitudes in a community. It draws upon ethnographic data from a women's field hockey club to examine players' homophobic attitudes towards lesbians on the team.

PRE-FAMINE IRELAND: SOCIAL STRUCTURE

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The companion volume to this one is now almost ready. This book deals with the social and economic aspects of Ireland in the pre-Famine period. The second volume (Ireland 1800-1850}deals with the political history of the same period. This book, Pre-Famine Ireland, grew out of a project I undertook, after completing my doctoral thesis, to read a copy of one or more Irish newspapers for every day between 1800 and 1850. This not only gave me contemporary perspectives on the period but also provided a wealth of information not otherwise readily available. Information, for example, on the courts, on the duties and responsibilities of officers, like mayors and sheriffs, how they were appointed, to whom they were responsible, and who was responsible for seeing they conducted themselves well; who conducted schools, what was taught in them, who managed schools for girls; long-forgotten religious disputes, and so on. It had been my intention to write a single volume on the history of the period, but the vast quantity of data I collected on social and economic conditions compelled me to gather it into a separate volume. The subject is so vast that in the course of a single volume only the barest outline of each topic can be given. There is no room for recounting different interpretations among scholars that belong more appropriately to more specialist publications. My aim is to provide a hand-book for the general reader or general student of Irish history, but also one into which the specialist may dip concerning matters not of their speciality. The period 1800 to 1850 in Irish history has not been particularly frequently or well researched. Distortions too were caused by the political objectives of the various writers. Facts were selected, omitted, or twisted to suit political objectives. Catholic or nationalist writers wrote with their own religious and political objectives in mind, and Protestants or loyalists likewise. Historians concentrated on the political struggles an

Crystal Structure Determination

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This textbook gives a concise introduction to modern crystal structure determination, emphasising both its theoretical background and the way it is actually carried out. The theoretical sections are supported by many illustrations, and lay emphasis on a good understanding rather than rigorous mathematics. The most important data collection techniques, and the methods of data reduction, structure solution and refinement are discussed from a practical point of view. Many tips and insights help readers to recognise and avoid possible errors and traps, and to judge the quality of results. The second edition has been considerably updated, especially the chapter on experimental methods, which is now mainly concerned with modern data collection using area-detectors.

Dimensions of Urban Social Structure

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The physical segregation of social groups in industrial cities has long attracted the attention of social scientist and casual observer alike. In Australia the possibility of mapping the social ecology of large cities has been limited by the absence of sufficiently detailed census of information, a gap remedied in 1961 by the provision of a new range of small area data. Here the author exploits the existence of the new information to present the first intensive social anatomy of any Australian metropolis. Statistics on the residential concentration and segregation of seventy socioeconomic, demographic, ethnic, and religious categories are examined, and the vast complexity and range of these data are reduced by sophisticated techniques of statistical analysis to three theoretically meaningful constructs-social rank, familism, and ethnicity. These constructs are used to develop a typology of social areas which serves as the basis for developing an understanding of and further hypotheses about, urban social structure. Not only does this analysis present a self-contained study of Australia's second largest metropolis, but detailed maps and statistical appendixes provide a benchmark for future social investigations into the urban scene-on subjects such as political preference, immigrant adjustment, poverty, crime, delinquency, and urban planning.

Multisensor Data Fusion

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Multisensor Data Fusion: From Algorithms and Architectural Design to Applications covers the contemporary theory and practice of multisensor data fusion, from fundamental concepts to cutting-edge techniques drawn from a broad array of disciplines. Featuring contributions from the world's leading data fusion researchers and academicians, this authoritative book: Presents state-of-the-art advances in the design of multisensor data fusion algorithms, addressing issues related to the nature, location, and computational ability of the sensorsDescribes new materials and achievements in optimal fusion and multisensor filtersDiscusses the advantages and challenges associated with multisensor data fusion, from extended spatial and temporal coverage to imperfection and diversity in sensor technologiesExplores the topology, communication structure, computational resources, fusion level, goals, and optimization of multisensor data fusion system architecturesShowcases applications of multisensor data fusion in fields such as medicine, transportation's traffic, defense, and navigationMultisensor Data Fusion: From Algorithms and Architectural Design to Applications is a robust collection of modern multisensor data fusion methodologies. The book instills a deeper understanding of the basics of multisensor data fusion as well as a practical knowledge of the problems that can be faced during its execution.

Handling Uncertainty and Networked Structure in Robot Control

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This book focuses on two challenges posed in robot control by the increasing adoption of robots in the everyday human environment: uncertainty and networked communication. Part I of the book describes learning control to address environmental uncertainty. Part II discusses state estimation, active sensing, and complex scenario perception to tackle sensing uncertainty. Part III completes the book with control of networked robots and multi-robot teams. Each chapter features in-depth technical coverage and case studies highlighting the applicability of the techniques, with real robots or in simulation. Platforms include mobile ground, aerial, and underwater robots, as well as humanoid robots and robot arms. Source code and experimental data are available at http://extras. springer.com. The text gathers contributions from academic and industry experts, and offers a valuable resource for researchers or graduate students in robot control and perception. It also benefits researchers in related areas, such as computer vision, nonlinear and learning control, and multi-agent systems.

The American Class Structure in an Age of Growing Inequality

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With the latest data on income, wealth, earnings, and residential segregation by income, The American Class Structure in an Age of Growing Inequality, Tenth Edition describes a consistent pattern of growing inequality in the United States since the early 1970s. Focusing on the socioeconomic core of the American class system, author Dennis L. Gilbert examines how changes in the economy, family life, globalization, and politics are contributing to increasing class inequality. New to this Edition"The Class Basis of Trump's Victory" looks at why for the first time since before the 1932 election, the Republican presidential candidate won a greater proportion of the working class vote than the Democratic opponent. Addresses the role of technology and other factors in the decline of manufacturing employment and how the trend is crucial for understanding growing inequality and changes in working class family life. Offers international comparisons to show how the U.S. compares with other wealthy nations on social mobility and poverty, and questions our conception of the U.S. as a uniquely open society.

Contrasts and Positions in Information Structure

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Information structure, or the way the information in a sentence is 'divided' into categories such as topic, focus, comment, background, and old versus new information, is one of the most widely debated topics in linguistics. This volume incorporates exciting work on the relationship between syntax and information structure. The contributors are united in rejecting accounts that assume designated syntactic positions associated with specific information-structural interpretations, and aim instead to derive information-structural conditions on word order and other phenomena from the way syntax and syntax-external systems interact. Beyond this shared aim, the authors of the various chapters advocate a number of approaches, based on different types of data (syntactic, semantic, phonological/phonetic) from a range of languages. The book is aimed at specialists in syntax and/or information structure, as well as students and linguists in related fields keen to familiarise themselves with current issues in this fascinating area of research.

The Compound Model of Nuclear Structures

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The objective of this theoretical approach to understanding the structure of the nucleus was to produce a concise model for all the elements. In particular, the focus was to determine a few simple rules that would define the precise structure of every stable isotope. After several years of research and analysis, a concise model of just three rules has been achieved. This model has exact correlations with the current experimental data for all the stable isotopes.

Empirical Note on Debt Structure and Financial Performance in Ghana

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This book deals extensively with theoretical, empirical, and robust methodology of capital structure in the context of debt structure in the Ghanaian financial sector. The study investigated the relationship between debt structure and financial performance of financial institutions in Ghana over the period 20022011. Using panel data methodology, it was discovered that there is a significant difference in the capital structure practices of insurance companies and banks. Short-term debts and total debt are negatively significant in determining returns on equity (ROE) and returns on asset (ROA) in the financial institutions of Ghana.

Structural Health Monitoring of Large Civil Engineering Structures

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A critical review of key developments and latest advances in Structural Health Monitoring technologies applied to civil engineering structures, covering all aspects required for practical applicationStructural Health Monitoring (SHM) provides the facilities for in-service monitoring of structural performance and damage assessment, and is a key element of condition based maintenance and damage prognosis. This comprehensive book brings readers up to date on the most important changes and advancements in the structural health monitoring technologies applied to civil engineering structures. It covers all aspects required for such monitoring in the field, including sensors and networks, data acquisition and processing, damage detection techniques and damage prognostics techniques. The book also includes a number of case studies showing how the techniques can be applied in the development of sustainable and resilient civil infrastructure systems. Structural Health Monitoring of Large Civil Engineering Structures offers in-depth chapter coverage of: Sensors and Sensing Technology for Structural Monitoring; Data Acquisition, Transmission, and Management; Structural Damage Identification Techniques; Modal Analysis of Civil Engineering Structures; Finite Element Model Updating; Vibration Based Damage Identification Methods; Model Based Damage Assessment Methods; Monitoring Based Reliability Analysis and Damage Prognosis; and Applications of SHM Strategies to Large Civil Structures. Presents state-of-the-art SHM technologies allowing asset managers to evaluate structural performance and make rational decisionsCovers all aspects required for the practical application of SHM Includes case studies that show how the techniques can be applied in practiceStructural Health Monitoring of Large Civil Engineering Structures is an ideal book for practicing civil engineers, academics and postgraduate students studying civil and structural engineering.

The Syntax-Information Structure Interface

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It is quite remarkable that, after over a half-century of research in generative grammar, there is still uncertainty and debate surrounding the analysis of preverbal subjects in a number of -subject languages. The implications of this debate are far-reaching for generative theory: if preverbal subjects are analyzed as non-arguments, it calls into question the proposed universality of the EPP (as in e.g. Alexiadou & Anagnostopoulou 1998), as well as its associated features and feature-strengths. Galician, spoken in the northwest of Spain, is an under-documented Romance language within the generative paradigm. In this book, the author details an experimental program for establishing clausal word order appropriateness and preferences in a variety of information structure contexts, while informing theoretical debate on preverbal subjects. The experimental methodology and information structure assumptions employed create several testable predictions. The statistical data suggest that Galician is a predominantly SVO language and that preverbal subjects behave like canonical subjects, and not CLLD constituents. The empirical data discussed inform the modified model of the preverbal field that the author proposes for Galician, which takes into account a number of recent analyses of Western Iberian Romance clausal phenomena such as the enclisis-proclisis divide, topicalization, focalization, and recomplementation.

Fine Structure of Solar Radio Bursts

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The study of the fine structure of solar radio emissions is key to understanding plasma processes in the solar corona. It remains a reliable means for both diagnosing the corona and verifying the results of laboratory plasma experiments on wave-wave and wave-particle interactions. This monograph provides a comprehensive review of the fine structure of solar radio bursts. Based on the diversity of experimental data resulting from the progress made in observational techniques, the validity of various theoretical models is reexamined. The book serves as an up-to-date reference work for all researchers in this field.

The Structure and Dynamics of Cities

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With over half of the world's population now living in urban areas, the ability to model and understand the structure and dynamics of cities is becoming increasingly valuable. Combining new data with tools and concepts from statistical physics and urban economics, this book presents a modern and interdisciplinary perspective on cities and urban systems. Both empirical observations and theoretical approaches are critically reviewed, with particular emphasis placed on derivations of classical models and results, along with analysis of their limits and validity. Key aspects of cities are thoroughly analyzed, including mobility patterns, the impact of multimodality, the coupling between different transportation modes, the evolution of infrastructure networks, spatial and social organisation, and interactions between cities. Drawing upon knowledge and methods from areas of mathematics, physics, economics and geography, the resulting quantitative description of cities will be of interest to all those studying and researching how to model these complex systems.

Buildings and Structures of American Railroads

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This work is intended to serve as a reference book for Railroad Managers, Superintendents, Master Mechanics, Engineers, Architects, Students, and others connected with the various departments of railroading or kindred interests, who are desirous of obtaining data as to the existing practice on American railroads relating to any of the subjects discussed in the book. Extracts from the first sixteen chapters were previously published in serial form in the Railroad Gazette, and met with favorable and encouraging comments. It is hardly necessary to call attention to the scarcity of American literature on buildings and similar structures connected with the station service, maintenance of way and operating departments of railroads. With the exception of isolated articles to be found in technical periodicals or in the publications of professional societies, accurate and exhaustive data relating to existing railroad structures can only be obtained by personal inspection or by addressing the proper department official in charge of the work in question. The purpose of this book is to obviate to a large extent the necessity of railroad men and others in search of such information having to resort to tedious investigations and personal inquiries. Attention is also called to the fact that most of the subjects embraced in this book have never before been discussed in print in a systematic and thorough manner. The aim of the author has been to present a collection embodying the best practice for each particular class of structure, whether cheap or expensive, and showing the sundry variations caused by individual views or local conditions in different sections of the country. Particular attention has been paid to the smaller buildings connected with the roadway and operating departments. The cheap and simple structures in use in the thinly settled sections of the country have been considered of as much importance as those of the most elaborate and artistic design. Each subject is disc

Creep and Hygrothermal Effects in Concrete Structures

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This comprehensive treatise covers in detail practical methods of analysis as well as advanced mathematical models for structures highly sensitive to creep and shrinkage. Effective computational algorithms for century-long creep effects in structures, moisture diffusion and high temperature effects are presented. The main design codes and recommendations (including RILEM B3 and B4) are critically compared. Statistical uncertainty of century-long predictions is analyzed and its reduction by extrapolation is discussed, with emphasis on updating based on short-time tests and on long-term measurements on existing structures. Testing methods and the statistics of large randomly collected databases are critically appraised and improvements of predictions of multi-decade relaxation of prestressing steel, cyclic creep in bridges, cracking damage, etc, are demonstrated. Important research directions, such as nanomechanical and probabilistic modeling, are identified, and the need for separating the long-lasting autogenous shrinkage of modern concretes from the creep and drying shrinkage data and introducing it into practical prediction models is emphasized. All the results are derived mathematically and justified as much as possible by extensive test data. The theoretical background in linear viscoelasticity with aging is covered in detail. The didactic style makes the book suitable as a textbook. Everything is properly explained, step by step, with a wealth of application examples as well as simple illustrations of the basic phenomena which could alternate as homeworks or exams. The book is of interest to practicing engineers, researchers, educators and graduate students.

The Galactic Structure of Jesus the Christ

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Whatever might have possibly existed in times past, whatever might have been said and done in times past, wherever that might have been, as long as it happened on this same singular universe, there remains a record of all those activities. And certainly, there is an archive wherein all those details are regularly been kept. Even as you, the reader, reads and even as I, the writer, writes before you can read, just as we understand the purpose of a video recording, there is an immaterial but automatic instant storing system in the spiritual. Spiritually, those records are stored somewhere in the universewithin the galactic masses. As the Christ is all and in all, it follows that all these huge volumes of data are archived inside the galactic structure of the Christ. In addition to these historical archives, there are also records of future events as well, and they remain accessible. Beautifully, anyone and everyone so privileged by God Almighty can have access to these data and see them in real time modebut only spiritually and not physically. Sadly, as these data are spiritual and the entity of Satan, who is a spirit, is still resident within time, he and his demonic cohorts equally can access (actually crack and hack into) these huge tons of data at will. By the spiritual nature of the fallen man, his spirit no longer has direct accesses to these data bank, and so he needs a spiritual guide to lead him all the way. On Gods part, He leads the spirits of men (through unique dreams, daytime trances, visions, the spirit of prophecy, etc.) all at his own will. But on the part of Satan who is the hacking spirit, he can lead the spirits of men both at his own will and at the will of the restless man. As expected, with the illegal methods of Satan (whether by spiritism, mediums, crystal balls, channeling arts, telepathy, projections, and meditations, diabolism), there are bound to be troubles as there is a penalty for erring and gross misconducts. And irrespective of the pr
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