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The Structure of Wages
The distribution of income, the rate of pay raises, and the mobility of employees is crucial to understanding labor economics. Although research abounds on the distribution of wages across individuals in the economy, wage differentials within firms remain a mystery to economists. The first effort to examine linked employer-employee data across countries, The Structure of Wages: An International Comparison analyzes labor trends and their institutional background in the United States and eight European countries. A distinguished team of contributors reveal how a rising wage variance rewards star employees at a higher rate than ever before, how talent becomes concentrated in a few firms over time, and how outside market conditions affect wages in the twenty-first century. From a comparative perspective that examines wage and income differences within and between countries such as Denmark, Italy, and the Netherlands, this volume will be required reading for economists and those working in industrial organization.
Category: Business. ISBN: 9780226470504

Preferred Argument Structure
Preferred Argument Structure offers a profound insight into the relationship between language use and grammatical structure. In his original publication on Preferred Argument Structure, Du Bois (1987) demonstrated the power of this perspective by using it to explain the origins of ergativity and ergative marking systems. Since this work, the general applicability of Preferred Argument Structure has been demonstrated in studies of language after language. In this collection, the authors move beyond verifying Preferred Argument Structure as a property of a given language. They use the methodology to reveal more subtle aspects of the patterns, for example, to look across languages, diachronically or synchronically, to examine particular grammatical relations, and to examine special populations or particular genres. This volume will appeal to linguists interested in the relationship of pragmatics and grammar generally, in the typology of grammatical relations, and in explanations derived from data- and corpus-based approaches to analysis.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines. ISBN: 9789027226242

Molecular Structure and Function
One of the overarching themes in nature is that form meets function, meaning that the shape of an object determines how well the object can perform its function. This book begins with some basics about specificity of shapes and the four increasing levels of protein structure. Most of this book examines how epinephrine (adrenaline) can cause the liver to release glucose when a person experiences a fight or flight response. Whenever someone gets scared, all of their cells are bathed in epinephrine. A subset of those cells will respond directly to this hormone, and the liver cells prepare other cells for the extra energy they might need to survive. This book presents some of the data that revealed how the information of fear is carried inside liver cells. This book will also consider how and why some cell membranes are wavy. In short, this book looks at the structure/function relationship at the molecular level.
Category: Science. ISBN: 9781944749057

Searching for Structure
This book argues against the existence of complementation in colloquial Indonesian, and discusses the ramifications of these findings for a discourse-functional understanding of grammatical categories and linguistic structure. Based on a close analysis of a corpus of spontaneous conversational Indonesian data, the author examines four construction types which express what is often encoded by complements in other languages: juxtaposed clauses, material introduced by the discourse marker bahwa , serial verbs, and epistemic expressions with the suffix -nya . These four construction types offer no evidence to support complementation as a viable grammatical category in colloquial spoken Indonesian. Rather, they are best understood as emergent, discourse-level phenomena, arising from the interactive and communicative goals of language users. The lack of evidence for complementation in colloquial Indonesian reaffirms the need to understand linguistic structure as language-particular and diverse, and emphasizes the centrality of studying linguistic categories based on their actual occurrence in natural discourse.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines. ISBN: 9789027226235

Space, Structure and Randomness
Space, structure, and randomness: these are the three key concepts underlying Georges Matheron's scientific work. He first encountered them at the beginning of his career when working as a mining engineer, and then they resurfaced in fields ranging from meteorology to microscopy. What could these radically different types of applications possibly have in common? First, in each one only a single realisation of the phenomenon is available for study, but its features repeat themselves in space; second, the sampling pattern is rarely regular, and finally there are problems of change of scale. This volume is divided in three sections on random sets, geostatistics and mathematical morphology. They reflect his professional interests and his search for underlying unity. Some readers may be surprised to find theoretical chapters mixed with applied ones. We have done this deliberately. GM always considered that the distinction between the theory and practice was purely academic. When GM tackled practical problems, he used his skill as a physicist to extract the salient features and to select variables which could be measured meaningfully and whose values could be estimated from the available data. Then he used his outstanding ability as a mathematician to solve the problems neatly and efficiently. It was his capacity to combine a physicist's intuition with a mathematician's analytical skills that allowed him to produce new and innovative solutions to difficult problems. The book should appeal to graduate students and researchers working in mathematics, probability, statistics, physics, spatial data analysis, and image analysis. In addition it will be of interest to those who enjoy discovering links between scientific disciplines that seem unrelated at first glance. In writing the book the contributors have tried to put GM's ideas into perspective. During his working life, GM was a genuinely creative scientist. He developed innovative concepts whose usefulness goes far beyond the confines of the discipline for which they were originally designed. This is why his work remains as pertinent today as it was when it was first written.
Category: Technology. ISBN: 9780387203317

The Structure of Complementation
The study of complementation has received considerable attention in generative studies. Following Rosenbaum's (1967) pioneering study of the English complement system, there are extensive studies by Lakoff (1965), Ross (1967), Perlmutter (1971) and a large number of publications. More recent detailed studies are Emonds (1970) and Bresnan (1972) . These studies have increased enormously the body of factual knowledge about the complement system of English, and about the phenomenon of complementation in general. As a consequence there are a number of empirical hypotheses about the structure of human languages which must now be tested against facts of different languages. Of these hypotheses, perhaps the most interesting is that the grammars of all languages make use of the principle of the transformational cycle. Testing this hypothesis constitutes one of the main concerns of the present book. Furthermore, these studies have also raised numerous interesting empirical issues of great importance for linguistic theory, most of which are still awaiting fresh evidence from different languages in order to be settled. This study is directed towards resolving some of these issues by adducing relevent data, primarily from Portuguese.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines. ISBN: 9789064391651

Information Structure and Agreement
The existing syntactic accounts of null arguments typically rely either on the specific licensing conditions for different types of empty categories such as pro and (topic-)bound variables, or else on different kinds of ellipsis. In trying to address the radical argument drop character of Catalan Sign Language (LSC), this paper critically reassesses the two main trends in the analysis of this phenomenon in East Asian languages and their extensions to American Sign Language (ASL). Both hybrid and uniform approaches to empty arguments turn out to be unable to account for the non-negligible differences observed across East Asian and sign languages. Most importantly, the availability of sloppy readings for empty arguments as a criterion to identify ellipsis vis-à-vis empty pronouns is shown to be empirically incorrect on the basis of fresh data from Catalan and English. After intensive research in this domain over the years, a satisfactory theory of null arguments that does justice to the wealth of crosslinguistic variation is still lacking.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines. ISBN: 9789027255808

Consonant Structure and Prevocalization
This monograph proposes a new interpretation of the intrasegmental structure of consonants and provides the first systematic intra- and cross-linguistic study of consonant prevocalization. The proposed model represents consonants as inherently bigestural and makes strong predictions that are automatically relevant to phonological theory at both the diachronic and synchronic levels, and also to the phonetics of articulatory evolution. It also clearly demonstrates that a wide generalization of the notion of consonant prevocalization provides a uniform account for many well-known processes generally considered independent from asynchronous palatalization in Polish to intrusive [r] in nonrhotic English, to vowel epentheses in Avestan, and to pre-/s/ vowel prothesis in Welsh. Consonant prevocalization has not played a significant role in the development of modern phonological theory to date, and this work is the first to highlight its broad theoretical significance. It develops important theoretical insights, with a wealth of supporting data and a rich bibliography. No doubt, this book will be of great interest to phonologists, phoneticians, typologists, and historical linguists.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines. ISBN: 9789027248282

Resource Structure of Agriculture
Resource Structure of Agriculture: An Economic Analysis focuses on the quantitative economic analysis of the agricultural industry. The book first discusses the theory of resource demand. Topics include decision milieu in agriculture; aggregate demand for an input; and notes on the statistical estimation of the demand function for an input. The text also examines the role of labor in agriculture, including agricultural wages, migration from agriculture, and regional labor supply. The monograph underscores the use of machineries in the agricultural sector. Analysis of post-war demand for power and machinery; early developments in agricultural mechanization; trends in the use of other machinery; and supply conditions for agricultural machinery are discussed. The text also looks at the use of fertilizers and pesticides in the agricultural sector, as well the need to invest in farm buildings. The book examines the demand for resources and supply of agricultural products. Future pattern of resource use and technological change; interactions between demands for different resources; and resource demand and a derived supply elasticity are discussed. The text is a valuable source of data for readers interested in the economic analysis of the agricultural industry.
Category: Business. ISBN: 9780080155852

Lifestyle and Social Structure
Lifestyle and Social Structure: Concepts, Definitions, Analyses is devoted the relationship between lifestyle and social structure. The book begins by constructing a meaningful concept of lifestyle in order to understand and model this relationship. The general formulation of the concept hinges on the descriptive word style, defined as ""any distinctive, and therefore recognizable way in which an act is performed or an artifact made or ought to be performed and made."" After developing the implications of the definition, lifestyle is defined, by analogy, as ""any distinctive, and therefore recognizable mode of living."" The notion of social structure is then introduced, arguing that structural differentiation engenders lifestyle differentiation. The remainder of the work is concerned primarily with the modeling of this relationship using data from the 1972-1973 Survey of Consumer Expenditures, and with the concept of stylistic unity. Key topics discussed include the relationship between the theory of lifestyle differentiation and modern economic utility theory; psychographic notions of lifestyle; and the relationships between lifestyle and other key sociological concepts (stratification, alienation). The concept of lifestyle should be of interest to a broad range of applied and theoretical researchers.
Category: Social Science. ISBN: 9780126542806
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