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Tables of Spectral Data for Structure Determination of Organic Compounds

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Although numerical data are, in principle, universal, the compilations presented in this book are extensively annotated and interleaved with text. This translation of the second German edition has been prepared to facilitate the use of this work, with all its valuable detail, by the large community of English-speaking scientists. Translation has also provided an opportunity to correct and revise the text, and to update the nomenclature. Fortunately, spectroscopic data and their relationship with structure do not change much with time so one can predict that this book will, for a long period of time, continue to be very useful to organic chemists involved in the identification of organic compounds or the elucidation of their structure. Klaus Biemann Cambridge, MA, April 1983 Preface to the First German Edition Making use of the information provided by various spectroscopic tech niques has become a matter of routine for the analytically oriented organic chemist. Those who have graduated recently received extensive training in these techniques as part of the curriculum while their older colleagues learned to use these methods by necessity. One can, therefore, assume that chemists are well versed in the proper choice of the methods suitable for the solution of a particular problem and to translate the experimental data into structural information.
Category: Technology. ISBN: 9783540512028

Geometric Structure of High-Dimensional Data and Dimensionality Reduction

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Adopting data geometry as a framework to address dimensionality reduction, this volume introduces well known linear methods, stressing recently developed ones, and covers various dimensionality reduction applications including hyperspectral imagery.
Category: Computers. ISBN: 9783642274961

Linguistic Structure Prediction

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A major part of natural language processing now depends on the use of text data to build linguistic analyzers. We consider statistical, computational approaches to modeling linguistic structure. We seek to unify across many approaches and many kinds of linguistic structures. Assuming a basic understanding of natural language processing and/or machine learning, we seek to bridge the gap between the two fields. Approaches to decoding (i.e., carrying out linguistic structure prediction) and supervised and unsupervised learning of models that predict discrete structures as outputs are the focus. We also survey natural language processing problems to which these methods are being applied, and we address related topics in probabilistic inference, optimization, and experimental methodology.Table of Contents: Representations and Linguistic Data / Decoding: Making Predictions / Learning Structure from Annotated Data / Learning Structure from Incomplete Data / Beyond Decoding: Inference
Category: Technology. ISBN: 9781608454051

Crystal Structure Analysis

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The purpose of this book is to explain why molecular structure can be determined by single-crystal diffraction of X rays. It is not an account of the practical procedural details, but rather an account of the underlying physical principles, and the kinds of experiments and methods of handling the experimental data that are used.
Category: Science. ISBN: 9780199576340

Discovering Causal Structure

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Discovering Causal Structure: Artificial Intelligence, Philosophy of Science, and Statistical Modeling provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of a computer program called TETRAD. This book discusses the version of the TETRAD program, which is designed to assist in the search for causal explanations of statistical data. or alternative models. This text then examines the notion of applying artificial intelligence methods to problems of statistical model specification. Other chapters consider how the TETRAD program can help to find god alternative models where they exist, and how it can help detect the existence of important neglected variables. This book discusses as well the procedures for specifying a model or models to account for non-experimental or quasi-experimental data. The final chapter presents a description of the format of input files and a description of each command. This book is a valuable resource for social scientists and researchers.
Category: Social Science. ISBN: 9780122869617

The Structure of Tone

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This book argues a fresh theory about the structure of tone. Bao investigates a wide range of tone sandhi data from various Chinese dialects and other Asian tone languages, providing empirical support for his proposal that tone is a formal entity which consists of register and contour. Bao establishes a clear typological distinction between register tone languages and contour tone languages whose contour tones have a more complex structure.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines. ISBN: 9780195118803

Animal Virus Structure

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Animal Virus Structure provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art summary of the structure, molecular composition, and principal antigenic and biological properties of each currently recognized family of animal viruses. Information deriving from electron microscopy, computer image processing and X-ray diffraction is integrated systematically with biochemical data into three-dimensional molecular models of viral architecture. A brief account of virus/cell interaction and pathogenicity completes each chapter.
Category: Science. ISBN: 9780444808790

Social Structure and Aging

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This volume presents a systematic examination of the impact of social structures on individual behaviors and on their development in adulthood and old age. These papers and responses attempt to improve the reciprocal relationship between changes in social macro- and micro-structures and the process of psychological development in relation to issues of human aging. Using and combining concepts and data from various fields, this research promotes a better understanding of the effects of demographic patterns and social structures on the psychological development of adults.
Category: Psychology & Psychiatry. ISBN: 9780805800937

Attitude Structure and Function

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Utilizing "new wave" research including new psychological theories, new statistical techniques, and a stronger methodology, this collection unites a diversity of recent research perspectives on attitudes and the psychological functions of an attitude. The objective of the editors was to bring together the bits and pieces of validated data into one systematic and adequate set of general principles leading to the view of attitudes as predictions. As the volume reformulates old concepts, explores new angles, and seeks a relationship among various sub-areas, it also shows improvements in the sophistication of research designs and methodologies, the specifications of variables, and the precision in defining concepts.
Category: Psychology & Psychiatry. ISBN: 9780898599916

Argument Structure in Flux

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In this paper we claim that the emergence of the existential pro-form in early Italo-Romance is motivated by the overt marking of definiteness on the pivot. The available data from a relatively large corpus of early Italo-Romance texts dating from C13th to C16th suggest that the overt marking of definiteness, which differentiates Romance from its ancestor Latin, favours the establishment of an existential pattern where the encoding of non-canonical pivots (definite ones) is licensed only if a locative element occurs in the structure; this can be a locative phrase, a locative relative pronoun or, crucially, a pro-form. From having the status of locative licenser of definiteness, the pro-form is thereafter reanalysed as an obligatory marker of existentiality and is extended to all types of existential construction.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines. ISBN: 9789027205988
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