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Process Theories
Processes constitute the world of human experience - from nature to cognition to social reality. Yet our philosophical and scientific theories of nature and experience have traditionally prioritized concepts for static objects and structures. The essays collected here call for a review of the role of dynamic categories in the language of theories. They present old and new descriptive tools for the modelling of dynamic domains, and argue for the merits of process-based explanations in ontology, cognitive science, semiotics, linguistics, philosophy of mind, robotics, theoretical biology, music theory, and philosophy of chemistry and physics. The collection is of interest to professional researchers in any of these fields; it establishes - for the very first time - crossdisciplinary contact among recent process-based research movements and might witness a conceptual paradigm shift in the making.

Contest Theory
Contests are prevalent in many areas, including sports, rent seeking, patent races, innovation inducement, labor markets, scientific projects, crowdsourcing and other online services, and allocation of computer system resources. This book provides unified, comprehensive coverage of contest theory as developed in economics, computer science, and statistics, with a focus on online services applications, allowing professionals, researchers and students to learn about the underlying theoretical principles and to test them in practice. The book sets contest design in a game-theoretic framework that can be used to model a wide-range of problems and efficiency measures such as total and individual output and social welfare, and offers insight into how the structure of prizes relates to desired contest design objectives. Methods for rating the skills and ranking of players are presented, as are proportional allocation and similar allocation mechanisms, simultaneous contests, sharing utility of productive activities, sequential contests, and tournaments.

Theories of Democracy
Theories of Democracy

Social Theory
For nearly a quarter-century, Charles Lemert has shared his love of social theory, and the questions it explores, in this collection of readings. With 140 selections that begin in the nineteenth century and end in 2015, Social Theory charts the long arc of the development of the field. This edition retains classic texts by Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, Max Weber, and W.E.B. Du Bois and writings of major contemporary figures like Audre Lorde and Patricia Hill Collins, while adding pieces from Harriet Martineau, Friedrich Nietzsche, Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw, Thomas Piketty, and Ta-Nehisi Coates, among others. Revised and updated with a new section exploring social theory at the limits of the social, Lemert's Social Theory remains essential reading.

Valence Bond Theory
Valence bond (VB) theory, which builds the descriptions of molecules from those of its constituent parts, provided the first successful quantum mechanical treatments of chemical bonding. Its language and concepts permeate much of chemistry, at all levels. Various modern formulations of VB theory represent serious tools for quantum chemical studies of molecular electronic structure and reactivity. In physics, there is much VB-based work (particularly in semi-empirical form) on larger systems. Importance of TopicThe last decade has seen significant advances in methodology and a vast increase in the range of applications, with many new researchers entering the field. Why This TitleValence Bond Theory succeeds in presenting a comprehensive selection of contributions from leading valence bond (VB) theory researchers throughout the world. It focuses on the vast increase in the range of applications of methodology based on VB theory during the last decade and especially emphasizes recent advances.

Schumpeter's Price Theory
Joseph Alois Schumpeter has long been recognised as one of the great economists of the 20th Century, and his truly revolutionary approach to economic development continues to gain appreciation. This is particularly due to the emphasis he places on innovation and creative destruction as drivers of economic development. Yet, aspects of his theory remain neglected and poorly understood, especially his treatment of prices and price dynamics. This book provides a comprehensive and critical examination of Schumpeter's price theory as well as providing suggestions for the further development of the theory. While Schumpeter's theories of economic development, entrepreneurship and the business cycle have received substantial attention in the literature, his price theory has been neglected. Yet, he proposes a price theory that is as radical as his treatment of other topics. The holistic nature of his theory also naturally means that a better understanding of his price theory will provide extra insight into other aspects of his theoretical framework. This volume is of great interest to those who study Schumpeter's work, as well as those who have an interest in history of economic thought, economic theory and philosophy and political economy.

Political Theory
Doing and evolving with a political theory becomes easier for the students when they are reading the concepts presented here, in this book. Social and political philosophies learning become easier for the students where the mainstream academic political philosophies, take lead in the normative issues, across the nations. Universal content is occasional, whereas MPP, or the mainstream political philosophy, is just mainly parochial. To take inspiration from the societies other than the west, can hardly bring in references to the local problems. It takes scant notice, of the major cross-cultural issues, to acquire a unique, inflection in the different cultures. Western philosophies hardly become role model for students to acquire gist. Further, the difficulties are compounded just because of the non-availability of any good political science journals today. The book is just motivated by a unique but unflappable drive, to cater to the needs of those deserving students that are yearning for a quality textbook in the subject of political theory. It is gradually becoming an Inter disciplinary concept for any students from the other departments to pay heed. Contributors include the editors, and the students. So, it is dedicated to all the students, editors and contributors of all the kind, to be an excellent teaching cause.

III: Scattering Theory
Scattering theory is the study of an interacting system on a scale of time and/or distance which is large compared to the scale of the interaction itself. As such, it is the most effective means, sometimes the only means, to study microscopic nature. To understand the importance of scattering theory, consider the variety of ways in which it arises. First, there are various phenomena in nature (like the blue of the sky) which are the result of scattering. In order to understand the phenomenon (and to identify it as the result of scattering) one must understand the underlying dynamics and its scattering theory. Second, one often wants to use the scattering of waves or particles whose dynamics on knows to determine the structure and position of small or inaccessible objects. For example, in x-ray crystallography (which led to the discovery of DNA), tomography, and the detection of underwater objects by sonar, the underlying dynamics is well understood. What one would like to construct are correspondences that link, via the dynamics, the position, shape, and internal structure of the object to the scattering data. Ideally, the correspondence should be an explicit formula which allows one to reconstruct, at least approximately, the object from the scattering data. The main test of any proposed particle dynamics is whether one can construct for the dynamics a scattering theory that predicts the observed experimental data. Scattering theory was not always so central the physics. Even thought the Coulomb cross section could have been computed by Newton, had he bothered to ask the right question, its calculation is generally attributed to Rutherford more than two hundred years later. Of course, Rutherford's calculation was in connection with the first experiment in nuclear physics.

Information Theory
Excellent introduction treats 3 major areas: analysis of channel models and proof of coding theorems; study of specific coding systems; and study of statistical properties of information sources. Appendix summarizes Hilbert space background and results from the theory of stochastic processes. Advanced undergraduate to graduate level. Bibliography.

Continuum Theory
A textbook for either a semester or year course for graduate students of mathematics who have had at least one course in topology. Introduces continuum theory through a combination of classical and modern techniques. Annotation copyright Book News, Inc. Portland, Or.

Music Theory
Music is found in every identified culture that man has ever known, in past and in present. Every ancient tribe even the isolated ones have known to have music especially in their rituals and prayers. Music has always been a part of us since the ancient times. According to historians it has existence among us for the past 55,000 years. Initially music may have been invented in Africa which later developed to become an imperative part in human life.

Theory Unproven
Working with elephants in their natural habitat has always been Eric Phillips dream. Getting what he's always desired introduces him to Tyaan Bouwer, the bush pilot that flies in his supplies, and Eric discovers the allure of South Africa goes beyond the wildlife and the scenery. But in an area where bushveld prejudices and hatred bleed across the borders, realizing their love will be a hard fought battle. Keeping hold of it might just kill them.

Chaos Theory
Mathematics contains an important study field under the name Chaos theory. Chaos theory studies the concept and behavior of highly insensitive dynamical systems. It also studies behavior of dynamic systems in initial conditions, which often turns out to be super sensitive at a very high level. In Chaos theory, this concept is referred as Butterfly effect, which is the main field of study in this theory.

Theory of War
'A modern work of genius' Spectator Winner of the Costa/Whitbread Book of the Year Award 1993 Forced into slavery as a child, Jonathan Carrick escapes to a new life but within him lies the need for revenge against George Stokes, the son of his former master. Mallory Carrick, confined to a wheelchair, seeks to find out the truth about her grandfather's history. Haunting, elegant and passionate, Theory of War is a novel about how the past lives on through following generations. It follows one woman's journey to discover what her grandfather might have experienced and how his suffering still haunts his descendants.

Morse Theory
Morse Theory: Smooth and Discrete serves as an introduction to classical smooth Morse theory and to Forman's discrete Morse theory, highlighting the parallels between the two subjects. This is the first time both smooth and discrete Morse theory have been treated in a single volume. This makes the book a valuable resource for students and professionals working in topology and discrete mathematics. With a strong focus on examples, the text is suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students. Request Inspection CopyContents: Smooth Morse Theory: First StepsFundamental Results in Morse TheoryTopological ConsequencesHomologyPiecewise Linear Morse TheoryDiscrete Morse Theory: First StepsTopological ConsequencesAlgorithmsApplicationsAppendices: Smooth ManifoldsCell Complexes Readership: Graduate students in geometry and topology. Key Features: It is the first time these topics have been treated in the same volumeAccessible introduction to smooth Morse theory, aimed at studentsText includes many worked examples

Traffic Flow Theory
Creating Traffic Models is a challenging task because some of their interactions and system components are difficult to adequately express in a mathematical form. Traffic Flow Theory: Characteristics, Experimental Methods, and Numerical Techniques provide traffic engineers with the necessary methods and techniques for mathematically representing traffic flow. The book begins with a rigorous but easy to understand exposition of traffic flow characteristics including Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and traffic sensing technologies. Includes worked out examples and cases to illustrate concepts, models, and theoriesProvides modeling and analytical procedures for supporting different aspects of traffic analyses for supporting different flow modelsCarefully explains the dynamics of traffic flow over time and space

Conspiracy Theories
Through a series of specific questions that cut to the core of conspiracism as a global social and cultural phenomenon this book deconstructs the logic and rhetoric of conspiracy theories and analyses the broader social and psychological factors that contribute to their persistence in modern society.

This is a new and enlarged edition of Mark Fortier's very successful and widely used essential text for students. Theory/Theatre provides a unique and engaging introduction to literary theory as it relates to theatre and performance. Fortier lucidly examines current theoretical approaches, from semiotics, poststructuralism, through cultural materialism, postcolonial studies and feminist theory. This new edition includes: * More detailed explanation of key ideas * New 'Putting it into practice' sections at the end of each chapter so you can approach performances from specific theoretical perspectives * Annotated further reading section and glossary. Theory/Theatre is still the only study of its kind and is invaluable reading for beginning students and scholars of performance studies.

Plant Theory
In our age of ecological disaster, this book joins the growing philosophical literature on vegetable life to ask how our present debates about biopower and animal studies change if we take plants as a linchpin for thinking about biopolitics. Logically enough, the book uses animal studies as a way into the subject, but it does so in unexpected ways. Upending critical approaches of biopolitical regimes, it argues that it is plants rather than animals that are the forgotten and abjected forms of life under humanist biopower. Indeed, biopolitical theory has consistently sidestepped the issue of vegetable life, and more recently, has been outright hostile to it. Provocatively, Jeffrey T. Nealon wonders whether animal studies, which has taken the "inventor" of biopower himself to task for speciesism, has not misread Foucault, thereby managing to extend humanist biopower rather than to curb its reach. Nealon is interested in how and why this is the case. Plant Theory turns to several other thinkers of the high theory generation in an effort to imagine new futures for the ongoing biopolitical debate.

Grounded Theory
Wenig wurde bislang über die erkenntnistheoretische Fundierung der Grounded Theory in der pragmatischen Sozialphilosophie und die daraus resultierenden Konsequenzen für das Verständnis der methodologischen Konzeption wie der praktischen Verfahren geschrieben. Der Band schlieBt diese Lücke, indem das Erkenntnismodell, ausgehend von den Arbeiten von C.S. Peirce, J. Dewey, G.H. Mead und W. James, vorgestellt und den Spuren nachgegangen wird, die dieses Modell als Geltungsbegründung in der Methodologie der Grounded Theory hinterlassen hat. Dabei geht der Text auch auf die gravierenden methodologischen Unterschiede zwischen der von Anselm L. Strauss geprägten und der von Barney G. Glaser vertretenen Variante von Grounded Theory ein und beschäftigt sich mit wesentlichen Weiterentwicklungen einer pragmatistischen Grounded Theory im Kontext postmodernen Denkens.
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