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Strategic Theories

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Admiral Raoul Castex is France's most important modern naval strategist. Military historian Eugenia Kiesling offers the essence of Castex's original five volume study, Théories Stratégiques, in a useful one-volume abridgment and a very readable translation. It emphasizes the admiral's method of strategic analysis while omitting most of the chapters of historical narrative. Included are chapters defining strategy and relating it to policy and geography, analyzing the role of maritime forces and the significance of command at sea, prescribing a theory of conduct of operations, and introducing Castex's favorite themes: strategic manoeuvre, stratégie générale, and the theory of "perturbation". Two narrative chapters on German operations in the North Sea from 1914 to 1916 remain as examples of the author's historical style. The introduction places Castex's work in four distinct contexts: the international debate among naval theorists on the nature and importance of "command at sea," the controversy within France between advocates of the "historical" and "material" schools of naval strategy, the contemporary concern over coordinated naval strategy for total war, and his contribution to the formulation of French strategy between the world wars. In an era of expanding global responsibilities and shrinking national economies, Castex's balanced view of naval power offers many insights for today's new generation of naval thinkers.

Process Theories

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Processes constitute the world of human experience - from nature to cognition to social reality. Yet our philosophical and scientific theories of nature and experience have traditionally prioritized concepts for static objects and structures. The essays collected here call for a review of the role of dynamic categories in the language of theories. They present old and new descriptive tools for the modelling of dynamic domains, and argue for the merits of process-based explanations in ontology, cognitive science, semiotics, linguistics, philosophy of mind, robotics, theoretical biology, music theory, and philosophy of chemistry and physics. The collection is of interest to professional researchers in any of these fields; it establishes - for the very first time - crossdisciplinary contact among recent process-based research movements and might witness a conceptual paradigm shift in the making.

Contest Theory

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Contests are prevalent in many areas, including sports, rent seeking, patent races, innovation inducement, labor markets, scientific projects, crowdsourcing and other online services, and allocation of computer system resources. This book provides unified, comprehensive coverage of contest theory as developed in economics, computer science, and statistics, with a focus on online services applications, allowing professionals, researchers and students to learn about the underlying theoretical principles and to test them in practice. The book sets contest design in a game-theoretic framework that can be used to model a wide-range of problems and efficiency measures such as total and individual output and social welfare, and offers insight into how the structure of prizes relates to desired contest design objectives. Methods for rating the skills and ranking of players are presented, as are proportional allocation and similar allocation mechanisms, simultaneous contests, sharing utility of productive activities, sequential contests, and tournaments.

Grounded Theory

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Wenig wurde bislang über die erkenntnistheoretische Fundierung der Grounded Theory in der pragmatischen Sozialphilosophie und die daraus resultierenden Konsequenzen für das Verständnis der methodologischen Konzeption wie der praktischen Verfahren geschrieben. Der Band schlieBt diese Lücke, indem das Erkenntnismodell, ausgehend von den Arbeiten von C.S. Peirce, J. Dewey, G.H. Mead und W. James, vorgestellt und den Spuren nachgegangen wird, die dieses Modell als Geltungsbegründung in der Methodologie der Grounded Theory hinterlassen hat. Dabei geht der Text auch auf die gravierenden methodologischen Unterschiede zwischen der von Anselm L. Strauss geprägten und der von Barney G. Glaser vertretenen Variante von Grounded Theory ein und beschäftigt sich mit wesentlichen Weiterentwicklungen einer pragmatistischen Grounded Theory im Kontext postmodernen Denkens.

Urban Theory

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What is the future of the American city? What are the relevant contexts for the analysis of urban problems? Should attention be focused on the metropolitan area, the region, or the megalopolis? Does the changing shape and structure of urban America require new ways of thinking about the urban community? How do national trends and policies affect the future of city life? Until now few sociologists have tried to see what urban America may become. This failure limits their ability to serve the function they claim for themselves, asserts Ely Chinoy, enabling men and women to help shape their own future. Urban Theory examines trends, including social, cultural, and national variables that could affect them; offers explanations of urban problems; and presents a careful review of solutions that have been offered - proposals of planners, politicians, cynics, and even visionaries for remaking our cities and for controlling and directing growth or deterioration. It is a valuable assessment of the state of thinking about urban life during the post-World War II period, with interesting projections of trends and analyses. It includes a comprehensive discussion of many of the more academic questions dealt with in courses in urban sociology and urban planning, as well as a treatment of problems within a larger and more meaningful context. Chinoy states that unless people anticipate alternatives open to them, they will remain captive to forces that they do not understand or have no control over. By examining what the future may hold, we can more readily understand the present, cope with its problems, and deliberately contribute to the shape of the future. This perspective is as appropriate today as it was when the book was originally published in 1973. Included here are pieces by York Willbern, Catherine Bauer Wurster, John Friedman, John Miller, Jean Gottman, Paul N. Ylvisaker, Nathan Glazer, Morton Grodzins, and Russell Baker. This material will continue to be of interest in all so

Theories of Democracy

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Theories of Democracy

Probability Theory

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Analysis theory of any random phenomena is known as probability. Main resource for concept of probability is probability theory. Probability theory is said to be one of many most important concepts or branches of mathematics.

Postcolonial Theory and Autobiography

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Postcolonial Theory and Autobiography

Ramsey Theory

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This book explores the theory's history, recent developments, and some promising future directions through invited surveys written by prominent researchers in the field. The first three surveys provide historical background on the subject; the last three address Euclidean Ramsey theory and related coloring problems. In addition, open problems posed throughout the volume and in the concluding open problem chapter will appeal to graduate students and mathematicians alike.

Development Theory

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The studies in this book, first published in 1979, offer an all-encompassing contemporary critique of the sociology, politics and economics of development as they are 'conventionally' taught and disseminated. They also seek to outline the beginnings of a new approach, while not sparing from criticism the simplistic of contemporary radical theories. The reissue will prove of significant interest to the teaching of development studies at both undergraduate and post-graduate levels.

Nonlinear System Theory

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Nonlinear System Theory

European Film Theory

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European Film Theory explores the 'Europeanness' of European film theory, its philosophical origins, the 'culture wars' between 'Continental' and 'Analytical' film theory and philosophy, the major discursive and epistemological shifts in the history of Continental film theory, the relationship between Continental philosophy of art and philosophy of history and European film theory. Writing from a range of disciplines and perspectives, the contributors to this new volume in the AFI FILM READERS series offer fresh interpretations of European film theorists and illuminate the political potential of European film theory.

Learning Theories

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Sitting inside a class, one student finds it easy to absorb information while another struggles with it. While one learner may excel in a particular subject another may do well in all the subjects. Trainees go through the same training to be graded differently according to the level of information they have absorbed and the understanding they show. Learning is a complex process. It takes years for a person to understand certain subjects and he still works his way out of life with limited information because it is difficult to imbibe the overwhelming amount of knowledge present in the world today. Depending on how information is absorbed, processed and retained, a number of learning theories have been formulated which help us understand the process of learning in individuals.A number of factors decide the manner in which knowledge is acquired or information is processed by a person changing their views on certain subjects and forming new views about certain things. Learning is related with different parts of the brain which plays an important role in processing any information that we receive. Every individual processes the information differently based on their strengths and weaknesses. Educational psychology endeavors to gain an understanding about the different behaviors of an individual to a piece of information. This is used in analyzing the type of learning that can affect the individual the most. Different schools of thoughts are available for finding out how education and information is absorbed by a learner. This books aims at exploring the different learning theories that currently exist and understanding the roots of the theory and gaining an insight into the reasons why these theories exist.

Exemplarist Moral Theory

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In this book Linda Zagzebski presents an original moral theory based on direct reference to exemplars of goodness, modeled on the Putnam-Kripke theory which revolutionized semantics in the seventies. In Exemplarist Moral Theory, exemplars are identified through the emotion of admiration, which Zagzebski argues is both a motivating emotion and an emotion whose cognitive content permits the mapping of the moral domain around the features of exemplars. Using examples of heroes, saints, and sages, Zagzebski shows how narratives of exemplars and empirical work on the most admirable persons can be incorporated into the theory for both the theoretical purpose of generating a comprehensive theory, and the practical purpose of moral education and self-improvement. All basic moral terms, including "good person," "virtue," "good life," "right act," and "wrong act" are defined by the motives, ends, acts, or judgments of exemplars, or persons like that. The theory also generates an account of moral learning through emulation of exemplars, and Zagzebski defends a principle of the division of moral linguistic labor, which gives certain groups of people in a linguistic community special functions in identifying the extension or moral terms, spreading the stereotype associated with the term through the community, or providing the reasoning supporting judgments using those terms. The theory is therefore semantically externalist in that the meaning of moral terms is determined by features of the world outside the mind of the user, including features of exemplars and features of the social linguistic network linking users of the terms to exemplars. The book ends with suggestions about versions of the theory that are forms of moral realism, including a version that supports the existence of necessary a posteriori truths in ethics.

Field Theory

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Presents recent advances of perturbative relativistic field theory in a pedagogical and straightforward way. For graduate students who intend to specialize in high-energy physics.

Access Point Theories

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A few quick theories and lessons that make access points work.

Carnal Theory

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Dr. Elizabeth Spencer has a theory about sex. As Northeastern State University's leading behavioral researcher, the beautiful yet guarded doctor believes that lifelong satisfaction is no longer a couple's only game. After being left to her own devices thanks to years of disappointment, Spencer sets out to put her theory to the test. But when she meets her subject, the handsome, stubborn and unpredictable Dr. Michael Aaronson, more than just the science begins to go awry. As their sessions together heat up, and the two find themselves more and more on common ground, a sudden betrayal puts the entire project and their careers in jeopardy. Thrust into the national spotlight with questions flying on all sides, Spencer and Aaronson must face not only an uncertain future, but their own pasts as well. Will Spencer lose everything she set out to prove? Or will she finally find the satisfaction she's been looking for all her life?

Number Theory

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Number theories for advanced mathematicians to practice.

Number Theory

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Number theories for advanced mathematicians to practice.

Literary Theory: The Basics

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Providing the ideal first step in understanding the often bewildering world of literary theory, this text is an easy to follow and clearly presented introduction to this fascinating area.
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